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广东省人民政府首页  >  要闻动态  >  广东要闻

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月21日 13:57:14
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(  导)(读)(:本)(文)(主)(要)(研)(究)(美)(国)(联)(合)(部)(队)(在)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(中)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(能)(力)(。作)(者)(埃)(尔)(芬)(道)(尔)(上)(校)(认)(为)(,诸)(如)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”概)(念)(等)(战)(略)(指)(导)(过)(分)(强)(调)(获)(取)(利)(益)(攸)(关)(地)(区)(介)(入)(通)(道)(,忽)(视)(发)(展)(联)(合)(部)(队)(进)(入)(指)(定)(战)(区)(执)(行)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(能)(力)(,有)(可)(能)(使)(美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(出)(现)(结)(构)(性)(缺)(陷)(。通)(过)(分)(析)(美)(国)(全)(球)(收)(缩)(战)(略)(对)(于)(美)(军)(发)(展)(的)(影)(响)(以)(及)(预)(想)(未)(来)(可)(能)(出)(现)(的)(危)(机)(态)(势)(,作)(者)(指)(出)(未)(来)(对)(于)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(可)(能)(需)(求)(与)(当)(前)(规)(划)(之)(间)(存)(在)(差)(距)(,并)(提)(出)(若)(干)(建)(议)(以)(确)(保)(“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”能)(够)(赢)(得)(未)(来)(战)(争)(的)(“另)(一)(半)(”。  摘)(要)(  本)(论)(文)(主)(要)(研)(究)(美)(国)(联)(合)(部)(队)(在)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(中)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(能)(力)(。本)(文)(认)(为)(,“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”需)(要)(大)(幅)(改)(进)(执)(行)(此)(类)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(满)(足)(国)(家)(军)(事)(战)(略)(需)(求)(和)(推)(进)(美)(国)(的)(世)(界)(利)(益)(。此)(外)(,本)(文)(还)(对)(针)(对)(联)(合)(部)(队)(不)(同)(领)(域)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(提)(出)(了)(5项)(具)(体)(建)(议)(。  本)(文)(首)(先)(审)(视)(全)(球)(趋)(势)(、出)(现)(的)(威)(胁)(以)(及)(不)(断)(发)(展)(演)(变)(的)(军)(事)(手)(段)(,这)(些)(因)(素)(不)(仅)(将)(使)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(面)(临)(更)(大)(挑)(战)(,而)(且)(使)(其)(存)(在)(必)(要)(性)(在)(未)(来)(更)(加)(突)(出)(。对)(于)(与)(1940年)(以)(来)(任)(何)(时)(期)(相)(比)(本)(土)(基)(地)(化)(程)(度)(更)(高)(的)(美)(国)(联)(合)(部)(队)(,本)(文)(通)(过)(这)(种)(方)(式)(对)(其)(规)(模)(缩)(小)(和)(态)(势)(改)(变)(的)(现)(象)(做)(出)(解)(释)(。随)(后)(论)(文)(描)(述)(国)(家)(战)(略)(需)(求)(并)(且)(给)(出)(4个)(2020年)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(最)(有)(可)(能)(被)(运)(用)(的)(态)(势)(想)(定)(。在)(对)(规)(划)(能)(力)(和)(未)(来)(需)(求)(进)(行)(对)(比)(后)(,本)(文)(概)(略)(描)(述)(两)(者)(之)(间)(存)(在)(的)(巨)(大)(差)(距)(并)(提)(出)(建)(议)(。联)(合)(作)(战)(指)(挥)(官)(可)(能)(需)(要)(在)(未)(来)(多)(种)(危)(机)(局)(势)(中)(使)(用)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(手)(段)(。参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(议)(主)(席)(和)(其)(他)(高)(级)(国)(防)(官)(员)(必)(须)(理)(解)(这)(种)(需)(求)(,从)(而)(确)(保)(武)(装)(部)(队)(保)(持)(现)(有)(关)(键)(能)(力)(和)(发)(展)(并)(扩)(大)(未)(来)(可)(能)(需)(要)(的)(能)(力)(。通)(过)(这)(种)(方)(式)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(才)(能)(在)(冲)(突)(爆)(发)(时)(向)(总)(统)(和)(国)(防)(部)(长)(提)(供)(可)(能)(和)(可)(行)(的)(备)(选)(方)(案)(,同)(时)(以)(最)(佳)(作)(战)(能)(力)(确)(保)(国)(家)(面)(临)(的)(威)(胁)(最)(小)(化)(。  第)(1章)(:引)(言)(  美)(国)(面)(临)(的)(未)(来)(安)(全)(环)(境)(充)(满)(着)(不)(确)(定)(和)(迅)(速)(变)(化)(因)(素)(。在)(未)(来)(10年)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(最)(有)(可)(能)(遭)(遇)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(向)(世)(界)(上)(具)(有)(战)(略)(重)(要)(意)(义)(的)(地)(区)(投)(射)(作)(战)(力)(量)(,并)(通)(过)(在)(地)(面)(或)(海)(上)(对)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(实)(施)(军)(事)(行)(动)(威)(慑)(并)(战)(胜)(侵)(犯)(美)(国)(利)(益)(的)(行)(为)(。当)(前)(的)(战)(略)(指)(导)(文)(件)(明)(确)(承)(认)(这)(种)(需)(求)(的)(存)(在)(,并)(指)(导)(联)(合)(部)(队)(发)(展)(执)(行)(上)(述)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(。然)(而)(,持)(续)(变)(化)(的)(战)(略)(环)(境)(和)(不)(断)(出)(现)(的)(新)(型)(威)(胁)(和)(战)(术)(,尤)(其)(是)(与)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”战)(略)(相)(关)(的)(能)(力)(,将)(使)(在)(未)(来)(形)(成)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(能)(力)(对)(保)(护)(美)(国)(国)(家)(安)(全)(以)(及)(在)(世)(界)(范)(围)(内)(推)(进)(美)(国)(利)(益)(具)(备)(更)(加)(重)(要)(的)(影)(响)(。  在)(过)(去)(数)(年)(中)(,政)(治)(和)(军)(事)(领)(导)(人)(一)(直)(在)(争)(论)(如)(何)(在)(后)(伊)(拉)(克)(和)(阿)(富)(汗)(战)(争)(时)(代)(以)(最)(佳)(方)(式)(建)(设)(军)(事)(力)(量)(。这)(种)(争)(论)(发)(生)(在)(严)(峻)(经)(济)(挑)(战)(以)(及)(需)(要)(削)(减)(包)(括)(国)(防)(预)(算)(在)(内)(联)(邦)(政)(府)(开)(支)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,然)(而)(相)(关)(讨)(论)(经)(常)(遗)(漏)(关)(于)(承)(认)(维)(持)(健)(壮)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(必)(要)(性)(的)(议)(题)(。参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(主)(席)(和)(高)(级)(国)(防)(官)(员)(必)(须)(理)(解)(这)(种)(需)(求)(,确)(保)(美)(国)(军)(队)(当)(前)(具)(备)(关)(键)(作)(战)(能)(力)(并)(发)(展)(未)(来)(可)(能)(需)(要)(的)(其)(他)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。通)(过)(这)(种)(方)(式)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(才)(能)(向)(总)(统)(和)(国)(防)(部)(长)(提)(供)(横)(跨)(整)(个)(军)(事)(行)(动)(类)(型)(范)(围)(的)(所)(有)(可)(能)(和)(可)(行)(的)(备)(选)(方)(案)(。此)(外)(,凭)(借)(对)(当)(前)(作)(战)(能)(力)(与)(规)(划)(需)(求)(之)(间)(差)(距)(更)(加)(深)(入)(的)(理)(解)(,联)(合)(和)(军)(种)(单)(位)(项)(目)(决)(策)(者)(能)(够)(确)(定)(资)(源)(分)(配)(的)(优)(先)(顺)(序)(,以)(最)(佳)(方)(式)(对)(最)(需)(要)(的)(领)(域)(进)(行)(投)(资)(,确)(保)(国)(家)(安)(全)(风)(险)(最)(小)(化)(。  未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(在)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(的)(能)(力)(可)(能)(存)(在)(风)(险)(,这)(不)(仅)(是)(因)(为)(新)(型)(威)(胁)(和)(战)(术)(层)(出)(不)(穷)(,更)(多)(是)(由)(于)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(中)(联)(合)(部)(队)(将)(处)(于)(收)(缩)(态)(势)(,可)(用)(国)(防)(资)(源)(总)(量)(也)(将)(下)(降)(。本)(论)(文)(通)(过)(强)(调)(夺)(取)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(胜)(利)(的)(关)(键)(因)(素)(,提)(出)(若)(干)(减)(小)(安)(全)(风)(险)(的)(建)(议)(。鉴)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(是)(难)(度)(最)(大)(、代)(价)(高)(昂)(的)(战)(争)(形)(式)(,当)(前)(许)(多)(防)(御)(分)(析)(倾)(向)(于)(对)(这)(种)(能)(力)(需)(求)(一)(带)(而)(过)(,有)(选)(择)(性)(地)(相)(信)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(将)(找)(到)(一)(种)(更)(加)(廉)(价)(的)(方)(式)(完)(成)(其)(所)(赋)(予)(的)(任)(务)(。尤)(其)(在)(经)(济)(面)(临)(挑)(战)(的)(时)(代)(,沉)(浸)(在)(“把)(年)(青)(人)(送)(上)(战)(场)(”基)(本)(属)(于)(历)(史)(的)(幻)(想)(中)(对)(很)(多)(人)(都)(极)(具)(诱)(惑)(力)(。然)(而)(,过)(分)(依)(赖)(数)(字)(技)(术)(、离)(岸)(武)(器)(系)(统)(和)(精)(确)(打)(击)(手)(段)(干)(净)(利)(落)(地)(或)(以)(最)(小)(代)(价)(实)(施)(未)(来)(作)(战)(,忽)(视)(了)(许)(多)(更)(加)(重)(要)(的)(武)(装)(冲)(突)(连)(贯)(性)(属)(性)(,尤)(其)(是)(其)(对)(于)(政)(治)(、伦)(理)(和)(心)(理)(维)(度)(的)(持)(续)(影)(响)(。如)(果)(不)(能)(承)(担)(起)(现)(实)(责)(任)(,联)(合)(武)(装)(部)(队)(作)(战)(力)(量)(在)(未)(来)(战)(争)(中)(可)(能)(会)(遭)(到)(严)(重)(削)(弱)(。  当)(考)(虑)(2020年)(及)(以)(后)(的)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(需)(求)(时)(,下)(列)(问)(题)(可)(以)(作)(为)(讨)(论)(的)(中)(心)(议)(题)(:(1)未)(来)(敌)(人)(在)(2020年)(将)(构)(成)(怎)(样)(的)(重)(要)(挑)(战)(以)(及)(美)(国)(面)(临)(的)(作)(战)(环)(境)(如)(何)(?(2)关)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,国)(家)(战)(略)(对)(武)(装)(部)(队)(提)(出)(怎)(样)(的)(要)(求)(?(3)当)(前)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(投)(射)(力)(量)(是)(什)(么)(,未)(来)(最)(有)(可)(能)(在)(哪)(些)(领)(域)(出)(现)(差)(距)(?(4)鉴)(于)(此)(,国)(防)(部)(应)(该)(将)(掌)(握)(的)(资)(源)(集)(中)(应)(用)(于)(哪)(些)(方)(面)(从)(而)(确)(保)(其)(能)(够)(满)(足)(国)(家)(在)(2020年)(及)(以)(后)(的)(安)(全)(需)(求)(?  考)(虑)(到)(美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(不)(仅)(将)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(中)(处)(于)(收)(缩)(态)(势)(,而)(且)(将)(迎)(来)(1940年)(以)(来)(美)(国)(本)(土)(基)(地)(化)(程)(度)(最)(高)(的)(时)(期)(,作)(战)(力)(量)(投)(射)(问)(题)(与)(过)(去)(60年)(中)(任)(何)(时)(候)(相)(比)(都)(将)(被)(提)(高)(到)(更)(加)(重)(要)(的)(等)(级)(。这)(种)(状)(态)(以)(及)(采)(取)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”战)(术)(敌)(对)(国)(家)(数)(量)(不)(断)(增)(长)(的)(现)(实)(,要)(求)(美)(国)(不)(仅)(要)(夺)(取)(到)(达)(某)(些)(远)(距)(离)(海)(岸)(的)(通)(路)(,而)(且)(要)(在)(远)(离)(本)(土)(的)(地)(区)(成)(功)(执)(行)(并)(持)(续)(保)(持)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。尽)(管)(确)(保)(全)(球)(公)(域)(和)(重)(要)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(交)(通)(运)(输)(线)(安)(全)(是)(执)(行)(海)(外)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(关)(键)(前)(提)(,但)(其)(只)(能)(构)(成)(战)(争)(整)(体)(的)(一)(半)(。如)(果)(美)(国)(希)(望)(在)(敌)(对)(世)(界)(保)(护)(并)(推)(进)(其)(利)(益)(,战)(争)(的)(另)(外)(一)(半)(——在)(敌)(领)(土)(运)(用)(武)(装)(力)(量)(迫)(使)(出)(现)(持)(续)(的)(变)(化)(——依)(然)(是)(其)(必)(要)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。正)(如)(本)(文)(提)(出)(的)(观)(点)(,“美)(国)(军)(队)(必)(须)(相)(应)(地)(显)(著)(改)(进)(执)(行)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(,满)(足)(在)(日)(益)(复)(杂)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(中)(的)(国)(家)(战)(略)(需)(求)(”。  作)(为)(分)(析)(的)(第)(一)(步)(,本)(章)(在)(历)(史)(环)(境)(下)(简)(要)(回)(顾)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(,使)(用)(“历)(史)(开)(场)(白)(”的)(方)(式)(不)(仅)(能)(够)(为)(本)(次)(讨)(论)(提)(供)(背)(景)(和)(视)(野)(,还)(能)(够)(提)(供)(比)(较)(未)(来)(需)(求)(和)(过)(去)(经)(验)(的)(现)(实)(基)(础)(。第)(2章)(对)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(进)(行)(快)(速)(,总)(结)(促)(使)(产)(生)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(需)(求)(的)(主)(要)(趋)(势)(,描)(述)(美)(国)(可)(能)(遭)(遇)(的)(新)(型)(威)(胁)(和)(战)(术)(。这)(个)(章)(节)(还)(提)(供)(了)(2020年)(联)(合)(部)(队)(投)(射)(规)(模)(和)(整)(体)(力)(量)(态)(势)(作)(为)(后)(续)(研)(究)(框)(架)(。第)(3章)(构)(建)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(战)(略)(需)(求)(框)(架)(,提)(供)(4个)(假)(定)(发)(生)(在)(2020年)(的)(态)(势)(想)(定)(。每)(个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(将)(展)(现)(一)(种)(战)(争)(或)(非)(战)(争)(行)(动)(场)(景)(,其)(中)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(可)(能)(需)(要)(发)(动)(作)(为)(美)(国)(或)(联)(军)(更)(大)(规)(模)(军)(事)(行)(动)(组)(成)(部)(分)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。第)(4章)(总)(结)(天)(空)(、海)(洋)(、陆)(地)(、太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(领)(域)(的)(当)(前)(和)(规)(划)(中)(的)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,讨)(论)(规)(划)(中)(的)(特)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。此)(外)(,本)(章)(还)(概)(略)(描)(述)(了)(对)(于)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(最)(为)(重)(要)(的)(规)(划)(能)(力)(差)(距)(。第)(5章)(提)(出)(改)(进)(2020年)(及)(以)(后)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(5项)(建)(议)(从)(而)(完)(成)(整)(个)(分)(析)(过)(程)(。最)(后)(,本)(文)(将)(总)(结)(研)(究)(成)(果)(和)(提)(出)(关)(于)(变)(化)(前)(景)(的)(最)(终)(思)(考)(。本)(论)(文)(并)(不)(涉)(及)(更)(多)(关)(于)(每)(个)(军)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(发)(展)(的)(细)(节)(以)(及)(具)(体)(项)(目)(的)(精)(确)(需)(求)(。例)(如)(,本)(文)(不)(会)(讨)(论)(在)(特)(定)(场)(景)(下)(所)(需)(飞)(机)(、导)(弹)(、装)(甲)(车)(、卫)(星)(或)(者)(海)(军)(水)(下)(武)(器)(的)(具)(体)(数)(量)(和)(型)(号)(,以)(及)(他)(们)(确)(保)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(所)(需)(的)(时)(间)(。这)(种)(讨)(论)(将)(超)(越)(本)(文)(的)(研)(究)(范)(围)(。相)(反)(,此)(类)(需)(求)(将)(从)(概)(念)(上)(进)(行)(讨)(论)(,假)(定)(作)(战)(指)(挥)(机)(构)(及)(其)(军)(种)(单)(位)(会)(决)(定)(其)(完)(成)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(所)(需)(能)(力)(的)(数)(量)(。  同)(样)(地)(,关)(于)(国)(防)(预)(算)(及)(其)(相)(关)(程)(序)(也)(不)(会)(从)(细)(节)(上)(进)(行)(讨)(论)(。本)(文)(坚)(持)(如)(下)(观)(点)(,尽)(管)(财)(政)(紧)(缩)(时)(代)(即)(将)(到)(来)(,某)(些)(合)(理)(的)(预)(算)(程)(序)(依)(然)(会)(存)(在)(;虽)(然)(国)(防)(部)(掌)(握)(资)(源)(的)(总)(量)(将)(减)(少)(,但)(对)(于)(每)(项)(建)(议)(增)(加)(或)(扩)(展)(的)(能)(力)(,在)(预)(算)(方)(案)(的)(其)(他)(位)(置)(也)(会)(出)(现)(相)(应)(的)(平)(衡)(措)(施)(。  本)(文)(不)(会)(对)(已)(经)(在)(当)(前)(国)(家)(战)(略)(中)(勾)(勒)(出)(轮)(廓)(的)(战)(略)(重)(点)(问)(题)(提)(出)(质)(疑)(。尽)(管)(现)(有)(的)(国)(家)(战)(略)(文)(件)(体)(系)(需)(要)(美)(国)(承)(担)(相)(当)(程)(度)(的)(风)(险)(,尤)(其)(是)(近)(乎)(同)(时)(爆)(发)(的)(海)(外)(紧)(急)(事)(件)(,但)(任)(何)(对)(国)(家)(战)(略)(有)(益)(的)(批)(评)(都)(有)(必)(要)(进)(行)(独)(立)(讨)(论)(。本)(文)(所)(进)(行)(的)(战)(略)(讨)(论)(仅)(局)(限)(在)(当)(前)(战)(略)(对)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(要)(求)(的)(范)(围)(内)(——值)(得)(注)(意)(的)(是)(,这)(种)(考)(虑)(几)(乎)(从)(未)(在)(当)(前)(对)(未)(来)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(争)(论)(中)(出)(现)(过)(。本)(文)(主)(要)(参)(考)(资)(料)(具)(有)(多)(种)(类)(型)(,包)(括)(当)(前)(战)(略)(文)(件)(、联)(合)(和)(军)(种)(作)(战)(理)(论)(出)(版)(物)(以)(及)(重)(要)(现)(任)(或)(离)(任)(国)(防)(官)(员)(的)(观)(察)(和)(评)(论)(等)(。次)(要)(资)(料)(包)(括)(历)(史)(专)(题)(论)(文)(、政)(府)(机)(构)(和)(智)(库)(组)(织)(公)(开)(发)(表)(的)(报)(告)(、学)(术)(论)(文)(以)(及)(其)(他)(提)(供)(背)(景)(信)(息)(、当)(前)(政)(治)(和)(军)(事)(发)(展)(趋)(势)(分)(析)(和)(关)(于)(未)(来)(作)(战)(力)(量)(投)(射)(的)(资)(料)(。而)(且)(,这)(些)(资)(料)(提)(供)(了)(许)(多)(不)(同)(观)(点)(以)(及)(关)(于)(该)(问)(题)(研)(究)(状)(态)(的)(启)(示)(。这)(种)(参)(考)(资)(料)(选)(取)(方)(式)(的)(目)(的)(是)(聚)(合)(军)(事)(和)(民)(事)(作)(者)(的)(不)(同)(观)(点)(,形)(成)(对)(该)(问)(题)(的)(全)(面)(理)(解)(。  任)(何)(对)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(讨)(论)(都)(必)(须)(首)(先)(理)(解)(其)(概)(念)(以)(及)(此)(类)(军)(事)(行)(动)(过)(去)(如)(何)(执)(行)(的)(观)(点)(。当)(前)(作)(战)(条)(令)(将)(强)(行)(进)(入)((forcibleentry)定)(义)(为)(:“在)(敌)(武)(装)(抵)(抗)(的)(条)(件)(下)(夺)(取)(并)(占)(领)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(”。滩)(头)(阵)(地)((lodgment)被)(进)(一)(步)(定)(义)(为)(:“位)(于)(敌)(对)(或)(潜)(在)(敌)(对)(作)(战)(区)(域)(内)(的)(指)(定)(地)(区)(,当)(被)(夺)(取)(和)(占)(领)(后)(,能)(够)(创)(造)(地)(面)(部)(队)(和)(物)(资)(连)(续)(登)(陆)(的)(可)(能)(途)(径)(,为)(后)(续)(作)(战)(行)(动)(提)(供)(机)(动)(空)(间)(”。作)(为)(此)(类)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(演)(化)(形)(式)(,作)(战)(条)(令)(还)(将)(暂)(时)(夺)(占)(特)(定)(地)(区)(、执)(行)(有)(限)(作)(战)(行)(动)(随)(后)(按)(照)(计)(划)(撤)(出)(的)(战)(略)(突)(袭)(确)(定)(为)(一)(种)(类)(型)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。后)(者)(通)(常)(由)(特)(种)(部)(队)(等)(规)(模)(较)(小)(、机)(动)(性)(强)(的)(作)(战)(力)(量)(元)(素)(执)(行)(。换)(言)(之)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(本)(身)(往)(往)(并)(不)(是)(作)(战)(目)(的)(。相)(反)(,在)(更)(多)(情)(况)(下)(其)(只)(是)(“战)(争)(的)(另)(一)(半)(”的)(开)(端)(,后)(续)(作)(战)(只)(能)(在)(获)(取)(通)(路)(后)(登)(陆)(敌)(对)(国)(家)(领)(土)(,在)(延)(长)(的)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(交)(通)(线)(末)(端)(实)(施)(。联)(合)(作)(战)(条)(令)(当)(前)(划)(分)(了)(3种)(类)(型)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(:空)(降)(作)(战)(行)(动)((airborneoperations)、两)(栖)(作)(战)(行)(动)((amphibiousoperations)和)(直)(升)(机)(或)(固)(定)(翼)(飞)(机)(空)(中)(突)(袭)(作)(战)(行)(动)((airassaultoperations)。根)(据)(局)(势)(和)(军)(事)(目)(标)(的)(不)(同)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(司)(令)(部)(能)(够)(运)(用)(各)(种)(类)(型)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(组)(合)(作)(为)(更)(大)(规)(模)(作)(战)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。  历)(史)(上)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(是)(最)(具)(决)(定)(性)(影)(响)(的)(战)(争)(形)(式)(之)(一)(,其)(成)(功)(执)(行)(也)(面)(临)(着)(最)(为)(严)(峻)(的)(挑)(战)(。在)(第)(二)(次)(世)(界)(大)(战)(“霸)(王)(”行)(动)((OperationOverlord)期)(间)(,盟)(军)(在)(艾)(森)(豪)(威)(尔)(将)(军)(的)(指)(挥)(下)(,运)(用)(空)(降)(、滑)(翔)(机)(和)(两)(栖)(部)(队)(等)(多)(种)(形)(式)(突)(袭)(法)(国)(西)(海)(岸)(,在)(欧)(洲)(大)(陆)(占)(据)(立)(足)(点)(。这)(次)(主)(动)(实)(施)(的)(登)(陆)(行)(动)(集)(结)(力)(量)(并)(发)(动)(后)(续)(攻)(势)(,成)(功)(解)(放)(法)(国)(、占)(领)(德)(国)(并)(在)(不)(到)(一)(年)(的)(时)(间)(内)(结)(束)(了)(战)(争)(。诺)(曼)(底)(作)(战)(的)(成)(功)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(得)(益)(于)(盟)(军)(指)(挥)(官)(选)(择)(从)(实)(现)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(目)(标)(的)(角)(度)(发)(动)(进)(攻)(,打)(击)(德)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(相)(对)(薄)(弱)(的)(部)(位)(。在)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(“铬)(铁)(”作)(战)(行)(动)((OperationChromite)中)(,麦)(克)(阿)(瑟)(将)(军)(指)(挥)(海)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(在)(朝)(鲜)(西)(部)(港)(口)(城)(市)(仁)(川)(实)(施)(两)(栖)(登)(陆)(,突)(然)(袭)(击)(敌)(身)(后)(为)(联)(合)(国)(军)(解)(放)(首)(尔)(、摧)(毁)(敌)(交)(通)(运)(输)(线)(以)(及)(打)(破)(釜)(山)(防)(御)(圈)((thePusanperimeter)创)(造)(了)(条)(件)(。在)(数)(天)(时)(间)(里)(,联)(合)(国)(军)(发)(起)(全)(面)(进)(攻)(从)(而)(完)(全)(扭)(转)(了)(整)(个)(战)(争)(的)(形)(势)(。在)(1989年)(的)(“正)(义)(事)(业)(”行)(动)((OperationJustCause)中)(,美)(国)(空)(降)(兵)(部)(队)(通)(过)(一)(系)(列)(突)(然)(袭)(击)(行)(动)(推)(翻)(了)(巴)(拿)(马)(的)(曼)(纽)(尔)(诺)(列)(加)((ManuelNoriega)独)(裁)(政)(权)(,解)(散)(了)(其)(防)(御)(部)(队)(并)(恢)(复)(了)(这)(个)(国)(家)(的)(合)(法)(民)(主)(秩)(序)(。最)(后)(,美)(国)(特)(种)(部)(队)(在)(2011年)(5月)(发)(动)(代)(号)(“海)(神)(之)(戟)(”(OperationNeptuneSpear)的)(战)(略)(突)(袭)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(阿)(伯)(塔)(巴)(德)((Abbottabad)地)(区)(并)(成)(功)(击)(毙)(了)(奥)(萨)(马)(本)(拉)(登)(。  考)(虑)(到)(与)(其)(相)(关)(的)(高)(风)(险)(性)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(有)(时)(会)(付)(出)(沉)(重)(代)(价)(甚)(至)(遭)(遇)(失)(败)(。1940年)(4月)(中)(旬)(,近)(3万)(名)(盟)(军)(部)(队)(登)(陆)(挪)(威)(西)(海)(岸)(防)(御)(德)(国)(入)(侵)(。在)(数)(天)(时)(间)(里)(,登)(陆)(部)(队)(在)(德)(军)(空)(中)(和)(地)(面)(力)(量)(的)(严)(重)(打)(击)(下)(损)(失)(惨)(重)(,残)(余)(部)(队)(不)(得)(不)(通)(过)(海)(路)(撤)(退)(。此)(次)(失)(败)(产)(生)(了)(巨)(大)(政)(治)(影)(响)(,直)(接)(导)(致)(内)(维)(尔)(张)(伯)(伦)((NevilleChamberlain)首)(相)(辞)(职)(。2年)(以)(后)(,加)(拿)(大)(和)(英)(国)(军)(队)(再)(次)(在)(迪)(耶)(普)((Dieppe)作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(遭)(遇)(严)(重)(抵)(抗)(,造)(成)(盟)(军)(伤)(亡)(4000余)(人)(。即)(使)(在)(取)(得)(最)(终)(胜)(利)(的)(战)(斗)(中)(,代)(价)(高)(昂)(的)(进)(攻)(行)(动)(有)(时)(只)(能)(实)(现)(“皮)(洛)(士)(的)(胜)(利)(”,如)(1941年)(5月)(德)(军)(对)(克)(里)(特)(岛)((Crete)空)(降)(作)(战)(和)(盟)(军)(3年)(后)(的)(安)(齐)(奥)((Anzio)登)(陆)(作)(战)(。  尽)(管)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(执)(行)(模)(式)(经)(历)(着)(发)(展)(演)(变)(,但)(战)(争)(本)(质)(以)(及)(在)(遭)(遇)(武)(装)(抵)(抗)(的)(情)(况)(下)(占)(领)(敌)(人)(领)(土)(、摧)(毁)(其)(力)(量)(源)(头)(、迫)(使)(其)(接)(受)(结)(束)(战)(争)(条)(件)(的)(需)(求)(都)(不)(会)(改)(变)(。相)(应)(地)(,基)(于)(与)(作)(战)(环)(境)(、潜)(在)(敌)(人)(和)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(可)(能)(态)(势)(相)(关)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(能)(力)(,下)(一)(章)(将)(详)(细)(解)(释)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(需)(求)(将)(如)(何)(发)(展)(演)(变)(。  第)(2章)(:未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(  美)(国)(经)(济)(从)(1915年)(开)(始)(统)(治)(世)(界)(,其)(军)(事)(力)(量)(也)(在)(1943年)(以)(后)(也)(在)(全)(球)(占)(有)(压)(倒)(性)(优)(势)(。但)(新)(兴)(国)(家)(的)(崛)(起)(使)(美)(国)(两)(个)(领)(域)(中)(的)(统)(治)(力)(都)(面)(临)(挑)(战)(。此)(外)(,这)(些)(大)(国)(的)(崛)(起)(创)(造)(了)(新)(的)(战)(略)(环)(境)(和)(国)(际)(体)(系)(,尽)(管)(经)(历)(了)(持)(续)(的)(经)(济)(整)(合)(,但)(也)(将)(带)(来)(相)(当)(程)(度)(的)(不)(稳)(定)(因)(素)(。缺)(乏)(统)(治)(力)(量)(或)(正)(式)(组)(织)(框)(架)(,这)(种)(系)(统)(最)(终)(会)(倾)(向)(于)(冲)(突)(。  1.全)(球)(趋)(势)(和)(出)(现)(的)(威)(胁)(  在)(下)(一)(个)(10年)(中)(,全)(球)(经)(济)(实)(力)(的)(重)(大)(转)(移)(、发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(人)(口)(增)(长)(、城)(市)(化)(进)(程)(、持)(续)(的)(资)(源)(紧)(缺)(以)(及)(“既)(得)(利)(益)(者)(”和)(“未)(得)(利)(益)(者)(”之)(间)(日)(渐)(扩)(大)(的)(分)(歧)(将)(使)(安)(全)(环)(境)(处)(于)(不)(断)(增)(强)(的)(压)(力)(之)(下)(。在)(当)(前)(世)(界)(196个)(国)(家)(中)(,高)(达)(90个)(国)(家)(由)(于)(无)(法)(满)(足)(国)(民)(基)(本)(需)(求)(或)(者)(种)(族)(、文)(化)(和)(宗)(教)(冲)(突)(的)(混)(合)(威)(胁)(而)(面)(临)(潜)(在)(动)(乱)(局)(势)(。仅)(在)(过)(去)(20年)(中)(,全)(球)(已)(经)(爆)(发)(了)(50场)(种)(族)(战)(争)(、170次)(边)(境)(冲)(突)(和)(2场)(地)(区)(外)(力)(量)(参)(与)(的)(大)(规)(模)(战)(争)(。地)(区)(大)(国)(崛)(起)(、联)(盟)(关)(系)(转)(移)(以)(及)(技)(术)(扩)(散)(造)(成)(的)(战)(略)(环)(境)(不)(确)(定)(性)(将)(给)(美)(国)(带)(来)(一)(系)(列)(不)(同)(挑)(战)(,当)(然)(也)(包)(括)(大)(量)(机)(会)(。  此)(外)(,文)(化)(和)(民)(族)(身)(份)(认)(同)(依)(然)(是)(未)(来)(冲)(突)(的)(主)(要)(推)(动)(力)(。正)(如)(多)(年)(前)(一)(位)(著)(名)(国)(际)(关)(系)(观)(察)(家)(所)(说)(:“民)(族)(之)(间)(在)(当)(前)(最)(重)(要)(的)(区)(别)(并)(不)(是)(意)(识)(形)(态)(、政)(治)(或)(经)(济)(因)(素)(,而)(是)(文)(化)(”。在)(世)(界)(上)(许)(多)(地)(方)(,部)(落)(、国)(家)(、民)(族)(和)(种)(族)(群)(体)(以)(及)(某)(些)(宗)(教)(教)(派)(的)(信)(众)(都)(在)(努)(力)(试)(图)(回)(答)(关)(于)(身)(份)(认)(同)(这)(个)(始)(终)(困)(扰)(人)(类)(的)(基)(本)(问)(题)(。他)(们)(想)(知)(道)(自)(己)(是)(谁)(——以)(及)(自)(己)(不)(是)(谁)(;他)(们)(想)(知)(道)(谁)(可)(以)(为)(伴)(——以)(及)(谁)(又)(将)(为)(敌)(。因)(此)(,文)(化)(和)(宗)(教)(分)(歧)(重)(新)(作)(为)(影)(响)(全)(球)(范)(围)(内)(国)(家)(结)(盟)(和)(冲)(突)(的)(主)(要)(因)(素)(而)(出)(现)(。正)(如)(过)(去)(数)(十)(年)(的)(国)(际)(事)(件)(明)(显)(反)(映)(的)(,与)(当)(前)(国)(际)(冲)(突)(相)(关)(的)(主)(要)(宗)(教)(和)(文)(化)(现)(象)(是)(伊)(斯)(兰)(军)(事)(组)(织)(的)(产)(生)(和)(扩)(展)(。  美)(国)(国)(家)(安)(全)(威)(胁)(表)(现)(出)(多)(种)(不)(同)(形)(式)(。尽)(管)(实)(力)(接)(近)(的)(竞)(争)(者)(将)(不)(断)(扩)(展)(军)(事)(力)(量)(和)(推)(进)(现)(代)(化)(进)(程)(,但)(在)(下)(个)(10年)(任)(何)(大)(国)(都)(不)(可)(能)(公)(开)(寻)(求)(与)(美)(国)(爆)(发)(传)(统)(冲)(突)(。相)(反)(,未)(来)(敌)(人)(将)(运)(用)(适)(应)(性)(强)(的)(武)(装)(力)(量)(对)(抗)(美)(国)(利)(益)(,通)(过)(去)(中)(心)(化)(的)(方)(式)(挫)(败)(美)(国)(在)(火)(力)(和)(机)(动)(性)(方)(面)(的)(传)(统)(优)(势)(,突)(出)(强)(调)(综)(合)(利)(用)(旨)(在)(威)(慑)(美)(国)(外)(交)(、经)(济)(和)(军)(事)(行)(动)(有)(效)(性)(同)(时)(制)(约)(美)(国)(建)(立)(前)(进)(军)(事)(存)(在)(或)(在)(指)(定)(作)(战)(地)(区)(行)(动)(能)(力)(的)(“反)(介)(入)(”战)(略)(;以)(及)(威)(胁)(战)(区)(交)(通)(运)(输)(线)(和)(阻)(碍)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(“区)(域)(拒)(止)(”战)(术)(手)(段)(。这)(些)(敌)(人)(还)(会)(通)(过)(成)(熟)(的)(信)(息)(作)(战)(行)(动)(和)(网)(络)(攻)(击)(挑)(战)(美)(国)(国)(家)(利)(益)(和)(政)(治)(意)(志)(,同)(时)(寻)(找)(机)(会)(对)(美)(国)(本)(土)(造)(成)(物)(理)(打)(击)(。全)(球)(多)(国)(在)(网)(络)(攻)(击)(能)(力)(、巡)(航)(导)(弹)(技)(术)(、远)(程)(防)(空)(系)(统)(和)(精)(确)(制)(导)(火)(炮)(和)(火)(箭)(炮)(技)(术)(等)(领)(域)(的)(军)(事)(投)(资)(提)(供)(了)(实)(现)(这)(种)(作)(战)(方)(式)(的)(有)(力)(证)(据)(。  未)(来)(冲)(突)(最)(有)(可)(能)(在)(由)(意)(识)(形)(态)(驱)(动)(,综)(合)(运)(用)(传)(统)(、非)(正)(规)(和)(犯)(罪)(手)(段)(的)(敌)(人)(之)(间)(爆)(发)(。这)(种)(混)(合)(型)(威)(胁)(具)(有)(高)(度)(适)(应)(性)(、全)(球)(连)(接)(性)(、网)(络)(化)(和)(隐)(藏)(在)(本)(地)(民)(众)(中)(的)(特)(点)(。他)(们)(掌)(握)(着)(类)(型)(广)(泛)(的)(新)(型)(技)(术)(,包)(括)(潜)(在)(的)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(。他)(们)(还)(拥)(有)(各)(种)(新)(式)(武)(器)(,包)(括)(串)(联)(战)(斗)(部)(火)(箭)(推)(进)(榴)(弹)(和)(性)(能)(优)(于)(伊)(拉)(克)(和)(阿)(富)(汗)(战)(争)(中)(出)(现)(的)(同)(类)(武)(器)(的)(先)(进)(防)(空)(系)(统)(等)(。他)(们)(还)(将)(继)(续)(使)(用)(各)(种)(简)(易)(武)(器)(并)(且)(可)(能)(运)(用)(全)(球)(定)(位)(系)(统)(干)(扰)(器)(、自)(制)(的)(无)(线)(电)(频)(谱)(武)(器)(以)(及)(初)(级)(机)(器)(人)(系)(统)(打)(击)(美)(国)(对)(技)(术)(的)(依)(赖)(。  然)(而)(,美)(国)(也)(不)(能)(忽)(视)(与)(危)(险)(常)(规)(对)(手)(——包)(括)(拥)(有)(核)(武)(器)(的)(国)(家)(——作)(战)(的)(可)(能)(性)(。数)(量)(不)(断)(增)(长)(的)(全)(球)(行)(为)(体)(的)(政)(治)(、经)(济)(和)(军)(事)(利)(益)(与)(美)(国)(发)(生)(争)(执)(的)(机)(率)(呈)(增)(长)(趋)(势)(,存)(在)(与)(其)(或)(其)(代)(理)(人)(爆)(发)(冲)(突)(的)(现)(实)(可)(能)(性)(。从)(俄)(罗)(斯)(、中)(国)(和)(伊)(朗)(扩)(散)(出)(的)(作)(战)(理)(论)(和)(武)(器)(装)(备)(不)(断)(流)(入)(朝)(鲜)(和)(委)(内)(瑞)(拉)(等)(国)(家)(,以)(及)(诸)(如)(真)(主)(党)((Hezbollah)等)(具)(有)(较)(高)(组)(织)(效)(率)(的)(非)(国)(家)(行)(为)(体)(,预)(示)(着)(类)(似)(于)(传)(统)(战)(争)(的)(冲)(突)(可)(能)(性)(持)(续)(存)(在)(,只)(是)(其)(在)(时)(间)(和)(空)(间)(上)(具)(有)(局)(限)(性)(。在)(此)(类)(冲)(突)(中)(,敌)(人)(的)(威)(胁)(能)(力)(包)(括)(密)(集)(的)(间)(接)(火)(力)(、先)(进)(的)(无)(人)(机)(系)(统)(和)(反)(舰)(导)(弹)(、现)(代)(化)(的)(反)(坦)(克)(武)(器)(、顶)(部)(攻)(击)(弹)(药)(、第)(4代)(化)(学)(武)(器)(、先)(进)(空)(投)(弹)(药)(以)(及)(电)(磁)(武)(器)(等)(。敌)(人)(还)(将)(通)(过)(新)(型)(和)(改)(进)(的)(战)(术)(手)(段)(运)(用)(这)(些)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(在)(与)(美)(国)(及)(盟)(国)(军)(队)(对)(抗)(中)(占)(据)(优)(势)(。  这)(些)(作)(战)(模)(式)(清)(楚)(地)(显)(示)(陆)(地)(依)(然)(是)(未)(来)(武)(装)(冲)(突)(的)(主)(战)(场)(。由)(于)(美)(国)(掌)(握)(非)(常)(显)(著)(的)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(优)(势)(,敌)(人)(更)(有)(可)(能)(在)(其)(拥)(有)(完)(整)(有)(效)(能)(力)(的)(地)(面)(对)(美)(国)(利)(益)(发)(起)(挑)(战)(。与)(天)(空)(和)(海)(洋)(不)(同)(,美)(国)(技)(术)(和)(现)(代)(化)(军)(事)(装)(备)(未)(能)(在)(陆)(地)(威)(慑)(可)(能)(的)(战)(争)(,这)(使)(得)(2020年)(的)(敌)(人)(有)(机)(会)(规)(避)(美)(国)(许)(多)(强)(大)(的)(打)(击)(能)(力)(,以)(相)(对)(较)(低)(的)(成)(本)(实)(现)(最)(大)(目)(的)(。通)(过)(制)(造)(可)(能)(导)(致)(严)(重)(伤)(亡)(、需)(要)(强)(大)(意)(志)(力)(才)(能)(解)(决)(的)(军)(事)(危)(机)(局)(势)(,地)(面)(作)(战)(还)(能)(够)(帮)(助)(他)(们)(测)(试)(美)(国)(的)(决)(心)(和)(威)(慑)(行)(动)(。  未)(来)(10年)(的)(军)(事)(行)(动)(将)(在)(陌)(生)(文)(化)(环)(境)(和)(本)(地)(民)(众)(中)(间)(执)(行)(。战)(斗)(将)(发)(生)(在)(城)(市)(环)(境)(和)(地)(形)(条)(件)(恶)(劣)(、部)(队)(进)(入)(困)(难)(以)(及)(法)(律)(体)(系)(缺)(失)(导)(致)(安)(全)(和)(统)(治)(力)(空)(虚)(的)(地)(区)(,冲)(突)(还)(有)(可)(能)(发)(生)(在)(战)(略)(咽)(喉)(地)(区)(或)(沿)(着)(关)(键)(海)(上)(交)(通)(线)(。为)(了)(在)(这)(种)(环)(境)(中)(取)(胜)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(必)(须)(部)(署)(到)(远)(离)(本)(土)(的)(地)(区)(,从)(前)(进)(基)(地)(和)(独)(立)(据)(点)(出)(发)(以)(不)(断)(增)(强)(的)(去)(中)(心)(化)(方)(式)(实)(施)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。军)(事)(行)(动)(的)(成)(功)(还)(需)(要)(在)(这)(些)(遥)(远)(地)(区)(长)(期)(运)(用)(一)(系)(列)(跨)(机)(构)(和)(非)(军)(事)(手)(段)(。此)(外)(,每)(次)(作)(战)(行)(动)(还)(必)(须)(在)(能)(够)(赋)(予)(本)(地)(事)(件)(全)(球)(影)(响)(力)(的)(正)(式)(和)(非)(正)(式)(媒)(体)(从)(不)(间)(断)(的)(监)(视)(下)(执)(行)(。  美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(还)(必)(须)(保)(持)(执)(行)(世)(界)(范)(围)(内)(大)(量)(不)(同)(类)(型)(的)(稳)(定)(和)(维)(和)(、人)(道)(主)(义)(危)(机)(以)(及)(自)(然)(灾)(害)(救)(援)(行)(动)(独)(特)(能)(力)(。美)(国)(在)(印)(度)(尼)(西)(亚)(海)(啸)(、卡)(特)(里)(娜)(飓)(风)(以)(及)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(和)(海)(地)(地)(震)(中)(的)(救)(援)(行)(动)(只)(是)(近)(期)(发)(生)(的)(若)(干)(实)(例)(。作)(为)(国)(家)(或)(国)(际)(努)(力)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(还)(有)(可)(能)(被)(要)(求)(执)(行)(此)(类)(任)(务)(。  在)(这)(种)(战)(略)(场)(景)(下)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(为)(能)(在)(未)(来)(持)(续)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(将)(承)(受)(巨)(大)(压)(力)(,需)(要)(运)(用)(与)(当)(前)(存)(在)(显)(著)(区)(别)(的)(作)(战)(方)(式)(。未)(来)(,美)(国)(利)(用)(军)(事)(力)(量)(施)(加)(影)(响)(和)(保)(护)(自)(身)(利)(益)(依)(靠)(其)(从)(本)(土)(向)(全)(球)(偏)(僻)(角)(落)(投)(射)(军)(队)(的)(能)(力)(。然)(而)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(还)(必)(须)(保)(护)(扩)(展)(的)(交)(通)(线)(、在)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(抵)(抗)(的)(条)(件)(下)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(以)(及)(决)(定)(性)(地)(终)(结)(战)(争)(并)(且)(不)(需)(要)(完)(成)(长)(期)(占)(领)(或)(代)(价)(巨)(大)(的)(国)(家)(重)(建)(任)(务)(。在)(实)(力)(日)(益)(增)(强)(的)(竞)(争)(者)(试)(图)(挑)(战)(美)(国)(进)(入)(相)(关)(地)(区)(保)(护)(其)(核)(心)(利)(益)(能)(力)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,美)(国)(应)(该)(接)(受)(这)(种)(战)(略)(现)(实)(并)(制)(定)(相)(关)(对)(策)(。不)(仅)(如)(此)(,美)(国)(还)(要)(在)(和)(平)(时)(期)(与)(伙)(伴)(和)(盟)(友)(国)(家)(加)(强)(合)(作)(,获)(取)(建)(立)(基)(地)(的)(许)(可)(和)(过)(境)(飞)(行)(权)(、训)(练)(盟)(友)(国)(家)(军)(事)(和)(安)(全)(部)(队)(并)(建)(立)(牢)(固)(伙)(伴)(关)(系)(,通)(过)(可)(靠)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(能)(力)(威)(慑)(可)(能)(产)(生)(的)(威)(胁)(,确)(保)(世)(界)(上)(遥)(远)(地)(区)(的)(安)(全)(。这)(还)(需)(要)(有)(能)(力)(的)(第)(三)(世)(界)(国)(家)(盟)(友)(愿)(意)(接)(手)(“脏)(活)(累)(活)(”,在)(冲)(突)(结)(束)(后)(维)(持)(符)(合)(美)(国)(利)(益)(的)(稳)(定)(局)(势)(。通)(过)(上)(述)(手)(段)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(就)(不)(会)(面)(临)(灵)(活)(性)(丧)(失)(和)(战)(略)(影)(响)(力)(下)(降)(的)(风)(险)(,在)(21世)(纪)(保)(持)(影)(响)(海)(外)(事)(件)(的)(能)(力)(并)(推)(进)(国)(家)(利)(益)(。  2.“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”  从)(美)(国)(及)(其)(盟)(友)(在)(1991年)(的)(海)(湾)(战)(争)(中)(取)(得)(压)(倒)(性)(优)(势)(以)(来)(,世)(界)(上)(的)(军)(事)(观)(察)(家)(都)(在)(思)(考)(在)(未)(来)(冲)(突)(中)(对)(抗)(美)(国)(的)(最)(佳)(方)(式)(,印)(度)(陆)(军)(准)(将)(VK奈)(尔)((V.K.Nair)就)(是)(最)(早)(研)(究)(该)(问)(题)(的)(评)(论)(员)(之)(一)(。“沙)(漠)(风)(暴)(”行)(动)(结)(束)(后)(不)(久)(,奈)(尔)(就)(建)(议)(军)(事)(实)(力)(逊)(于)(美)(国)(的)(国)(家)(可)(以)(采)(用)(挑)(战)(美)(国)(进)(入)(世)(界)(各)(地)(区)(通)(路)(、威)(胁)(交)(通)(运)(输)(线)(、干)(扰)(基)(于)(航)(空)(母)(舰)(和)(两)(栖)(作)(战)(部)(队)(部)(署)(以)(及)(对)(部)(署)(过)(程)(中)(和)(已)(经)(完)(成)(部)(署)(的)(部)(队)(实)(施)(惩)(罚)(性)(打)(击)(的)(策)(略)(。奈)(尔)(认)(为)(第)(三)(世)(界)(国)(家)(可)(以)(通)(过)(政)(治)(、经)(济)(和)(信)(息)(手)(段)(对)(抗)(实)(力)(更)(为)(强)(大)(军)(事)(组)(织)(的)(部)(署)(行)(动)(,切)(断)(对)(手)(进)(入)(前)(进)(作)(战)(基)(地)(以)(预)(先)(准)(备)(后)(勤)(物)(资)(的)(通)(路)(。他)(还)(建)(议)(军)(事)(实)(力)(处)(于)(劣)(势)(的)(国)(家)(应)(该)(发)(展)(多)(种)(类)(型)(的)(远)(程)(防)(空)(系)(统)(以)(及)(水)(面)(、水)(下)(和)(空)(射)(导)(弹)(,在)(超)(过)(舰)(载)(战)(斗)(机)(打)(击)(范)(围)(的)(距)(离)(上)(形)(成)(强)(大)(抵)(抗)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(限)(制)(敌)(在)(特)(定)(区)(域)(内)(的)(作)(战)(效)(能)(。这)(种)(作)(战)(方)(式)(的)(基)(本)(内)(容)(形)(成)(于)(20多)(年)(以)(前)(,其)(向)(军)(事)(实)(力)(不)(足)(的)(国)(家)(提)(供)(了)(消)(除)(规)(模)(更)(大)(、技)(术)(更)(加)(先)(进)(军)(事)(力)(量)(许)(多)(传)(统)(优)(势)(的)(手)(段)(,同)(时)(也)(会)(使)(任)(何)(忽)(视)(这)(种)(能)(力)(威)(胁)(的)(军)(队)(付)(出)(无)(法)(承)(受)(的)(代)(价)(。  1991年)(以)(来)(,这)(些)(技)(术)(得)(到)(了)(充)(分)(发)(展)(和)(更)(加)(广)(泛)(地)(接)(受)(,并)(且)(在)(当)(前)(构)(成)(了)(能)(力)(较)(弱)(军)(事)(组)(织)(对)(抗)(强)(大)(对)(手)(的)(主)(要)(方)(式)(。这)(种)(模)(式)(的)(中)(心)(思)(想)(并)(不)(是)(运)(用)(武)(装)(部)(队)(与)(敌)(人)(直)(接)(对)(抗)(,而)(是)(通)(过)(政)(治)(和)(经)(济)(手)(段)(劝)(阻)(、对)(敌)(人)(向)(作)(战)(地)(区)(输)(送)(军)(事)(资)(产)(的)(行)(为)(进)(行)(威)(胁)(、或)(者)(通)(过)(使)(许)(多)(高)(价)(值)(目)(标)(处)(于)(危)(险)(而)(制)(造)(最)(大)(程)(度)(的)(威)(慑)(。在)(当)(前)(的)(联)(合)(作)(战)(概)(念)(中)(,“反)(介)(入)(”(anti-access,A2)通)(常)(指)(利)(用)(远)(程)(作)(战)(行)(动)(或)(能)(力)(,阻)(止)(敌)(对)(力)(量)(进)(入)(特)(定)(作)(战)(地)(区)(32。“区)(域)(拒)(止)(”(areadenial,AD)通)(常)(指)(的)(是)(利)(用)(相)(对)(近)(程)(作)(战)(行)(动)(或)(能)(力)(,并)(非)(阻)(止)(敌)(对)(力)(量)(进)(入)(,而)(是)(在)(特)(定)(作)(战)(地)(区)(限)(制)(其)(行)(动)(自)(由)(。两)(个)(概)(念)(相)(互)(补)(充)(,其)(中)(“反)(介)(入)(”代)(表)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(方)(式)(,而)(“区)(域)(拒)(止)(”突)(出)(强)(调)(战)(役)(和)(战)(术)(层)(面)(的)(行)(动)(。采)(取)(这)(种)(方)(式)(的)(国)(家)(,包)(括)(中)(国)(、伊)(朗)(和)(朝)(鲜)(,对)(美)(国)(形)(成)(了)(日)(益)(严)(峻)(的)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(挑)(战)(,“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”必)(须)(采)(取)(应)(对)(措)(施)(,确)(保)(成)(功)(推)(行)(美)(国)(的)(军)(事)(战)(略)(。  面)(对)(的)(主)(要)(军)(事)(挑)(战)(对)(象)(未)(来)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(的)(提)(高)(,美)(国)(已)(经)(促)(使)(国)(防)(部)(投)(入)(大)(量)(精)(力)(和)(资)(源)(明)(确)(联)(合)(部)(队)(如)(何)(部)(署)(、执)(行)(和)(维)(持)(军)(事)(行)(动)(。事)(实)(上)(,美)(国)(正)(在)(花)(费)(大)(量)(时)(间)(和)(努)(力)(寻)(找)(破)(解)(其)(在)(20多)(年)(前)(提)(出)(的)(作)(战)(概)(念)(的)(方)(法)(,这)(种)(措)(施)(毫)(无)(疑)(问)(过)(分)(抬)(高)(了)(奈)(尔)(准)(将)(研)(究)(成)(果)(的)(价)(值)(。尽)(管)(其)(提)(出)(的)(概)(念)(极)(富)(创)(造)(性)(和)(思)(想)(性)(,但)(将)(注)(意)(力)(集)(中)(在)(介)(入)(挑)(战)(将)(造)(成)(国)(防)(机)(构)(中)(的)(许)(多)(人)(低)(估)(,至)(少)(无)(意)(识)(地)(,所)(谓)(“战)(争)(另)(一)(半)(”的)(重)(要)(性)(:通)(常)(情)(况)(下)(必)(须)(实)(施)(的)(后)(续)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,从)(而)(实)(现)(期)(望)(的)(军)(事)(和)(政)(治)(终)(止)(状)(态)(。尽)(管)(在)(某)(些)(有)(限)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(夺)(取)(通)(路)(本)(身)(可)(能)(确)(实)(是)(作)(战)(目)(的)(,但)(其)(一)(般)(只)(是)(实)(现)(其)(他)(目)(标)(的)(途)(径)(。在)(这)(种)(背)(景)(下)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(才)(是)(战)(争)(的)(重)(心)(。如)(果)(“到)(达)(”确)(实)(是)(战)(争)(的)(前)(半)(部)(分)(,打)(击)(造)(成)(冲)(突)(的)(政)(治)(、经)(济)(和)(军)(事)(力)(量)(源)(头)(从)(而)(战)(胜)(敌)(人)(、持)(久)(改)(变)(这)(些)(局)(势)(以)(及)(施)(加)(可)(接)(受)(和)(平)(条)(约)(的)(后)(续)(作)(战)(行)(动)(就)(是)(战)(争)(的)(另)(外)(一)(半)(。  3.“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”态)(势)(  在)(未)(来)(7年)(中)(,国)(防)(部)(将)(在)(日)(益)(增)(强)(的)(压)(力)(条)(件)(下)(削)(减)(美)(国)(军)(事)(规)(模)(并)(将)(当)(前)(位)(于)(海)(外)(基)(地)(的)(军)(队)(转)(移)(回)(本)(土)(。无)(论)(这)(些)(变)(化)(的)(战)(略)(意)(义)(如)(何)(,现)(实)(经)(济)(形)(势)(要)(求)(联)(邦)(政)(府)(不)(能)(再)(简)(单)(地)(逐)(年)(增)(加)(数)(十)(亿)(美)(元)(规)(模)(的)(赤)(字)(,国)(防)(预)(算)(毫)(无)(疑)(问)(是)(接)(受)(严)(格)(审)(查)(的)(对)(象)(。尽)(管)(进)(一)(步)(的)(裁)(军)(是)(一)(个)(具)(有)(极)(大)(争)(议)(并)(且)(存)(在)(大)(量)(变)(数)(的)(政)(治)(问)(题)(,但)(在)(力)(量)(结)(构)(、采)(办)(规)(模)(甚)(至)(有)(可)(能)(战)(备)(能)(力)(方)(面)(的)(大)(幅)(裁)(减)(是)(使)(联)(邦)(政)(府)(回)(归)(可)(维)(持)(的)(开)(支)(水)(平)(,使)(其)(不)(会)(对)(国)(家)(长)(期)(经)(济)(安)(全)(造)(成)(威)(胁)(的)(必)(要)(措)(施)(。根)(据)(未)(来)(7年)(的)(国)(家)(经)(济)(能)(力)(、联)(邦)(税)(收)(法)(律)(和)(津)(贴)(改)(革)(成)(果)(,国)(防)(部)(很)(有)(可)(能)(被)(迫)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(减)(少)(约)(25%的)(开)(支)(。如)(果)(这)(种)(情)(况)(发)(生)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(机)(构)(必)(须)(重)(新)(审)(查)(其)(整)(体)(战)(略)(,而)(且)(非)(常)(有)(可)(能)(调)(整)(或)(取)(消)(某)(些)(战)(略)(项)(目)(。  假)(设)(这)(种)(“紧)(缩)(时)(代)(”必)(将)(到)(来)(,“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”将)(如)(何)(发)(展)(,尤)(其)(在)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(能)(力)(问)(题)(上)(,其)(将)(呈)(现)(怎)(样)(的)(国)(防)(态)(势)(?当)(然)(这)(些)(问)(题)(属)(于)(国)(家)(决)(策)(者)(讨)(论)(和)(决)(定)(的)(范)(围)(,但)(如)(果)(缺)(乏)(明)(显)(确)(定)(的)(重)(点)(——甚)(至)(于)(即)(使)(存)(在)(——下)(文)(讨)(论)(的)(变)(化)(都)(在)(可)(能)(出)(现)(的)(范)(围)(内)(。  (1)核)(武)(装)(力)(量)(。根)(据)(节)(省)(开)(支)(的)(需)(要)(,国)(防)(部)(很)(有)(可)(能)(必)(须)(缩)(小)(国)(家)(核)(武)(库)(规)(模)(。在)(这)(个)(问)(题)(上)(,其)(可)(能)(只)(保)(留)(当)(前)(三)(位)(一)(体)(核)(力)(量)(中)(的)(潜)(射)(弹)(道)(导)(弹)((ballisticmissilesubmarine),对)(陆)(基)(洲)(际)(弹)(道)(导)(弹)((intercontinentalballisticmissile)和)(战)(略)(轰)(炸)(机)(部)(队)(做)(出)(大)(幅)(削)(减)(。截)(至)(2020年)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(可)(能)(会)(退)(役)(或)(淘)(汰)(大)(部)(分)(导)(弹)(和)(战)(略)(轰)(炸)(机)(,国)(家)(核)(打)(击)(能)(力)(更)(加)(依)(赖)(三)(位)(一)(体)(核)(力)(量)(中)(最)(具)(灵)(活)(性)(和)(隐)(身)(性)(的)(作)(战)(要)(素)(。根)(据)(当)(前)(战)(略)(文)(件)(,其)(将)(以)(不)(影)(响)(国)(家)(整)(体)(核)(威)(慑)(能)(力)(的)(方)(式)(实)(现)(规)(模)(缩)(减)(。  (2)地)(面)(作)(战)(部)(队)(。在)(当)(前)(的)(国)(防)(项)(目)(中)(,现)(役)(地)(面)(作)(战)(部)(队)(规)(模)(计)(划)(从)(现)(在)(到)(2017年)(之)(间)(实)(现)(削)(减)(超)(过)(12%的)(目)(标)(。现)(役)(陆)(军)(部)(队)(最)(终)(力)(量)(规)(模)(计)(划)(从)(大)(约)(56.7万)(人)(减)(小)(至)(49万)(人)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(从)(20.21万)(人)(削)(减)(至)(18.21万)(人)(。在)(未)(来)(7年)(中)(,追)(加)(的)(开)(支)(节)(省)(措)(施)(也)(可)(能)(会)(使)(上)(述)(规)(模)(下)(降)(至)(更)(低)(水)(平)(,从)(而)(使)(陆)(军)(保)(持)(在)(40万)(人)(左)(右)(而)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(则)(约)(为)(15万)(人)(。在)(那)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,国)(防)(部)(和)(国)(会)(可)(能)(还)(将)(考)(虑)(大)(幅)(减)(少)(国)(民)(警)(卫)(队)(中)(陆)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(预)(备)(役)(人)(员)(的)(数)(量)(。这)(种)(规)(模)(的)(裁)(军)(可)(能)(会)(轻)(易)(将)(陆)(军)(空)(降)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(的)(数)(量)(由)(当)(前)(的)(6个)(减)(小)(到)(3个)(。陆)(军)(已)(经)(计)(划)(削)(减)(当)(前)(欧)(洲)(基)(地)(4个)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(中)(的)(2个)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(也)(计)(划)(将)(其)(驻)(扎)(在)(冲)(绳)(的)(大)(部)(分)(部)(队)(撤)(回)(。如)(果)(有)(必)(要)(采)(取)(进)(一)(步)(的)(裁)(军)(措)(施)(,国)(防)(部)(极)(有)(可)(能)(削)(减)(欧)(洲)(最)(后)(2个)(陆)(军)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(,甚)(至)(驻)(韩)(国)(部)(队)(也)(将)(减)(少)(1个)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(。此)(外)(,现)(役)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(团)(的)(数)(量)(也)(将)(减)(少)(2-3个)(。考)(虑)(到)(世)(界)(重)(要)(地)(区)(导)(弹)(威)(胁)(的)(扩)(散)(,陆)(基)(导)(弹)(防)(御)(部)(队)(可)(能)(不)(会)(削)(减)(规)(模)(。  (3)海)(军)(。海)(军)(极)(有)(可)(能)(将)(航)(母)(打)(击)(群)((CarrierStrikeGroups,CSG)及)(其)(附)(属)(飞)(行)(联)(队)(从)(当)(前)(的)(11个)(减)(小)(至)(维)(护)(能)(力)(适)(合)(保)(障)(的)(8-9个)(。此)(外)(,海)(军)(可)(能)(还)(必)(须)(对)(相)(关)(的)(远)(征)(打)(击)(群)((ExpeditionaryStrikeGroups)以)(及)(其)(所)(属)(两)(栖)(攻)(击)(、运)(输)(和)(登)(陆)(舰)(艇)(数)(量)(做)(出)(削)(减)(。海)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(可)(能)(必)(须)(在)(F-35战)(斗)(机)(的)(B型)(和)(C型)(衍)(生)(机)(型)(采)(购)(订)(单)(中)(做)(出)(删)(减)(。因)(此)(,海)(军)(最)(终)(力)(量)(将)(从)(当)(前)(的)(大)(约)(31.7万)(人)(下)(降)(至)(接)(近)(27.5万)(人)(。美)(国)(当)(然)(会)(保)(持)(具)(备)(在)(两)(个)(大)(洋)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(海)(军)(,但)(其)(规)(模)(将)(更)(加)(精)(简)(并)(且)(更)(加)(集)(中)(力)(量)(关)(注)(关)(键)(任)(务)(。  (4)空)(军)(。空)(军)(可)(能)(必)(须)(通)(过)(把)(部)(分)(现)(役)(打)(击)(联)(队)(编)(为)(预)(备)(役)(和)(减)(少)(F-35联)(合)(攻)(击)(战)(斗)(机)(订)(单)(数)(量)(等)(方)(式)(削)(减)(攻)(击)(部)(队)(规)(模)(。考)(虑)(到)(F-35得)(到)(了)(广)(泛)(支)(持)(,该)(项)(目)(被)(取)(消)(的)(机)(率)(不)(大)(,但)(即)(使)(A型)(衍)(生)(机)(型)(的)(实)(际)(采)(购)(数)(量)(可)(能)(也)(会)(比)(当)(前)(计)(划)(大)(幅)(缩)(水)(39。空)(军)(可)(能)(在)(缩)(减)(诸)(如)(C-17和)(C-130及)(其)(衍)(生)(机)(型)(等)(运)(输)(机)(和)(诸)(如)(A-10等)(老)(旧)(近)(距)(空)(中)(支)(援)(飞)(机)(的)(议)(题)(上)(承)(担)(更)(大)(压)(力)(。空)(军)(人)(员)(数)(量)(的)(缩)(减)(可)(能)(根)(据)(减)(少)(飞)(机)(的)(数)(量)(而)(确)(定)(,可)(能)(将)(当)(前)(的)(大)(约)(33.2万)(人)(下)(降)(至)(30万)(人)(,海)(外)(前)(进)(基)(地)(的)(空)(军)(人)(员)(也)(会)(按)(照)(相)(应)(比)(例)(缩)(减)(。  (5)特)(种)(部)(队)(。在)(国)(防)(部)(的)(现)(役)(部)(队)(中)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(可)(能)(是)(仅)(有)(的)(几)(个)(将)(在)(2020年)(前)(扩)(编)(的)(单)(位)(。当)(前)(正)(在)(进)(行)(的)(全)(球)(反)(恐)(作)(战)(和)(反)(制)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(行)(动)(要)(求)(可)(能)(需)(要)(新)(型)(系)(统)(、更)(多)(人)(员)(和)(更)(大)(权)(限)(。因)(此)(,美)(国)(特)(种)(作)(战)(司)(令)(部)(、军)(种)(机)(构)(以)(及)(下)(属)(部)(队)(可)(能)(会)(持)(续)(保)(持)(甚)(至)(扩)(大)(人)(员)(和)(先)(进)(装)(备)(的)(预)(算)(经)(费)(规)(模)(。特)(种)(部)(队)(可)(能)(还)(会)(保)(持)(当)(前)(态)(势)(,仅)(在)(部)(署)(位)(置)(上)(从)(当)(前)(的)(大)(中)(东)(地)(区)(向)(东)(亚)(和)(拉)(丁)(美)(洲)(转)(移)(。  (6)情)(报)(、太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(行)(动)(。“911”事)(件)(后)(情)(报)(事)(业)(经)(费)(大)(幅)(增)(加)(的)(趋)(势)(可)(能)(不)(会)(在)(2020年)(前)(继)(续)(保)(持)(。尤)(其)(是)(各)(机)(构)(之)(间)(的)(力)(量)(冗)(余)(很)(有)(可)(能)(成)(为)(未)(来)(开)(支)(节)(省)(措)(施)(的)(目)(标)(。被)(认)(为)(共)(同)(构)(成)(情)(报)(部)(门)((IntelligenceCommunity)的)(16个)(主)(要)(组)(织)(可)(能)(会)(解)(雇)(数)(千)(名)(2001年)(以)(来)(招)(募)(的)(新)(职)(员)(,压)(缩)(其)(预)(算)(从)(未)(得)(到)(真)(正)(控)(制)(的)(行)(动)(规)(模)(和)(机)(构)(数)(量)(。其)(目)(标)(是)(形)(成)(更)(加)(小)(型)(化)(、功)(能)(更)(加)(集)(中)(的)(情)(报)(组)(织)(,突)(出)(高)(技)(术)(手)(段)(的)(信)(号)(情)(报)(和)(高)(效)(的)(人)(力)(情)(报)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,美)(国)(情)(报)(部)(门)(的)(无)(人)(机)(单)(位)(在)(数)(量)(和)(类)(型)(上)(还)(会)(持)(续)(增)(加)(,从)(而)(形)(成)(更)(加)(先)(进)(的)(监)(控)(和)(监)(视)(能)(力)(。太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(组)(织)(可)(能)(会)(向)(联)(合)(部)(队)(提)(供)(各)(类)(新)(型)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,但)(其)(也)(将)(面)(对)(相)(同)(的)(财)(政)(现)(实)(。因)(此)(,他)(们)(掌)(握)(的)(资)(源)(出)(会)(出)(现)(大)(幅)(增)(加)(或)(削)(减)(,在)(保)(持)(现)(有)(能)(力)(的)(同)(时)(将)(重)(点)(转)(移)(至)(利)(用)(不)(断)(发)(展)(演)(变)(的)(网)(络)(空)(间)(技)(术)(,从)(而)(形)(成)(更)(强)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。  (7)联)(合)(司)(令)(部)(。“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”可)(能)(会)(在)(数)(量)(精)(简)(的)(统)(一)(作)(战)(指)(挥)(机)(构)(下)(执)(行)(任)(务)(。国)(防)(部)(尤)(其)(可)(能)(会)(选)(择)(合)(并)(当)(前)(某)(些)(地)(理)(司)(令)(部)(从)(而)(将)(关)(注)(焦)(点)(集)(中)(在)(关)(键)(地)(区)(。此)(外)(,根)(据)(当)(前)(的)(联)(合)(作)(战)(概)(念)(文)(件)(,国)(防)(部)(可)(能)(还)(会)(采)(取)(一)(种)(功)(能)(化)(方)(式)(指)(挥)(全)(球)(联)(合)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。当)(前)(的)(建)(议)(预)(想)(将)(地)(理)(司)(令)(部)(的)(数)(量)(锐)(减)(到)(3个)(,并)(且)(完)(全)(采)(用)(跨)(机)(构)(结)(构)(取)(代)(其)(功)(能)(。  (8)其)(他)(可)(能)(变)(化)(。最)(后)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(可)(能)(还)(会)(面)(临)(其)(他)(不)(断)(增)(长)(的)(压)(力)(,如)(减)(少)(采)(办)(程)(序)(开)(支)(、大)(幅)(削)(减)(民)(事)(雇)(员)(数)(量)(、减)(少)(现)(役)(军)(事)(人)(员)(工)(资)(和)(福)(利)(以)(及)(改)(革)(当)(前)(医)(疗)(和)(退)(休)(制)(度)(从)(而)(进)(一)(步)(节)(省)(经)(费)(规)(模)(。尽)(管)(这)(些)(变)(化)(不)(会)(直)(接)(影)(响)(联)(合)(部)(队)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(能)(力)(,但)(是)(它)(们)(是)(形)(成)(未)(来)(武)(装)(部)(队)(行)(动)(环)(境)(的)(部)(分)(因)(素)(。  尽)(管)(对)(上)(述)(变)(化)(的)(概)(述)(和)(分)(析)(完)(全)(基)(于)(猜)(想)(,但)(任)(何)(关)(注)(国)(家)(政)(治)(和)(财)(政)(局)(势)(的)(观)(察)(家)(可)(能)(将)(会)(承)(认)(上)(述)(观)(点)(全)(部)(或)(部)(分)(都)(明)(显)(有)(可)(能)(在)(从)(当)(前)(到)(2020年)(的)(时)(间)(区)(间)(内)(实)(现)(。如)(果)(美)(国)(决)(策)(者)(希)(望)(保)(持)(未)(来)(军)(事)(力)(量)(的)(战)(备)(水)(平)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(就)(必)(须)(缩)(小)(整)(体)(规)(模)(。事)(实)(上)(,当)(前)(战)(略)(文)(件)(称)(国)(防)(部)(将)(“抛)(弃)(以)(牺)(牲)(战)(备)(水)(平)(为)(代)(价)(保)(持)(当)(前)(部)(队)(结)(构)(的)(幻)(想)(,对)(于)(重)(要)(性)(在)(过)(去)(10年)(中)(未)(得)(到)(充)(分)(强)(调)(的)(地)(区)(,其)(将)(重)(建)(战)(备)(能)(力)(体)(系)(。”  这)(种)(类)(型)(的)(武)(装)(部)(队)(会)(帮)(助)(美)(国)(建)(立)(强)(大)(核)(威)(慑)(、在)(处)(理)(一)(场)(全)(球)(重)(大)(危)(机)(的)(同)(时)(在)(另)(一)(场)(危)(机)(中)(执)(行)(维)(持)(作)(战)(行)(动)(以)(及)(强)(化)(该)(地)(区)(内)(安)(全)(态)(势)(。在)(成)(功)(解)(决)(第)(一)(场)(危)(机)(后)(,国)(防)(部)(将)(重)(新)(分)(配)(作)(战)(资)(产)(满)(足)(优)(先)(级)(较)(低)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(需)(求)(。这)(样)(一)(支)(武)(装)(力)(量)(还)(要)(维)(持)(全)(球)(恐)(怖)(主)(义)(打)(击)(力)(度)(,同)(时)(执)(行)(定)(期)(的)(维)(稳)(、维)(和)(行)(动)(以)(及)(人)(道)(主)(义)(或)(灾)(害)(救)(援)(任)(务)(——假)(设)(其)(不)(与)(任)(何)(一)(场)(主)(要)(危)(机)(同)(时)(发)(生)(。尽)(管)(与)(今)(天)(的)(联)(合)(部)(队)(相)(比)(规)(模)(将)(更)(加)(精)(简)(,通)(过)(采)(取)(更)(富)(有)(创)(造)(性)(的)(手)(段)(,改)(进)(组)(织)(结)(构)(实)(现)(更)(加)(高)(效)(的)(联)(合)(,这)(种)(军)(事)(力)(量)(依)(然)(能)(够)(执)(行)(当)(前)(的)(国)(家)(战)(略)(。然)(而)(在)(整)(体)(全)(球)(影)(响)(力)(削)(弱)(的)(条)(件)(下)(,美)(国)(可)(接)(受)(的)(战)(略)(风)(险)(的)(底)(线)(无)(疑)(将)(受)(到)(挑)(战)(。  如)(果)(这)(种)(预)(想)(成)(为)(现)(实)(,“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”规)(模)(将)(减)(小)(而)(且)(与)(1940年)(以)(来)(任)(何)(时)(期)(相)(比)(本)(土)(基)(地)(化)(的)(程)(度)(将)(更)(为)(显)(著)(。考)(虑)(到)(关)(于)(作)(战)(环)(境)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(条)(件)(以)(及)(敌)(人)(可)(能)(采)(取)(突)(出)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(的)(策)(略)(,美)(国)(部)(队)(实)(现)(高)(效)(力)(量)(投)(射)(的)(需)(求)(将)(比)(当)(前)(更)(加)(迫)(切)(。在)(很)(多)(情)(况)(下)(,有)(效)(应)(对)(威)(胁)(美)(国)(核)(心)(或)(重)(要)(利)(益)(危)(机)(的)(军)(事)(手)(段)(应)(该)(包)(括)(一)(种)(或)(多)(种)(在)(交)(通)(运)(输)(延)(长)(线)(末)(端)(实)(施)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(能)(力)(形)(式)(。事)(实)(上)(,根)(据)(作)(战)(环)(境)(的)(不)(同)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(可)(能)(是)(美)(国)(试)(图)(保)(护)(或)(推)(进)(其)(全)(球)(利)(益)(的)(唯)(一)(真)(正)(可)(行)(的)(手)(段)(。为)(了)(理)(解)(未)(来)(作)(战)(需)(求)(,我)(们)(有)(必)(要)(更)(加)(详)(细)(地)(讨)(论)(强)(行)(进)(行)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(战)(略)(条)(件)(,并)(通)(过)(若)(干)(假)(定)(的)(未)(来)(局)(势)(检)(验)(其)(对)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(真)(正)(需)(求)(。  第)(3章)(:强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(战)(略)(需)(求)(  “为)(了)(挫)(败)(敌)(人)(侵)(犯)(美)(国)(利)(益)(的)(行)(为)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(向)(国)(家)(对)(抗)(反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(战)(略)(的)(方)(式)(提)(供)(支)(持)(。而)(击)(败)(这)(种)(战)(略)(能)(力)(需)(要)(联)(合)(部)(队)(作)(战)(条)(令)(更)(好)(地)(整)(合)(横)(跨)(所)(有)(作)(战)(域)(的)(核)(心)(竞)(争)(力)(,包)(括)(多)(域)(互)(补)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(能)(力)(、联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(、维)(持)(全)(球)(公)(域)(的)(联)(合)(可)(信)(介)(入)(途)(径)(、确)(保)(网)(络)(空)(间)(不)(会)(受)(到)(挑)(战)(以)(及)(与)(敌)(作)(战)(并)(取)(胜)(的)(能)(力)(。”  ——参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(议)(主)(席)(《美)(国)(国)(家)(军)(事)(战)(略)(-2011:重)(新)(定)(义)(美)(国)(的)(军)(事)(领)(导)(力)(》  正)(如)(《美)(国)(国)(家)(军)(事)(战)(略)(》所)(指)(出)(的)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(需)(要)(能)(够)(在)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”环)(境)(下)(保)(持)(健)(壮)(力)(量)(投)(射)(、对)(抗)(恐)(怖)(主)(义)(和)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(、威)(慑)(并)(击)(败)(挑)(衅)(行)(为)(、执)(行)(维)(持)(稳)(定)(、人)(道)(主)(义)(援)(助)(和)(灾)(害)(救)(援)(行)(动)(。所)(有)(这)(些)(类)(型)(军)(事)(行)(动)(的)(固)(有)(潜)(在)(需)(求)(都)(是)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(并)(确)(保)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(安)(全)(,为)(指)(挥)(本)(地)(军)(事)(行)(动)(、在)(必)(要)(时)(输)(入)(更)(多)(部)(队)(、加)(强)(并)(扩)(大)(对)(敌)(领)(土)(和)(资)(源)(的)(控)(制)(、以)(及)(在)(遥)(远)(距)(离)(上)(甚)(至)(可)(能)(更)(长)(时)(间)(范)(围)(内)(的)(保)(障)(作)(战)(行)(动)(创)(造)(空)(间)(。通)(过)(对)(关)(系)(美)(国)(战)(略)(利)(益)(地)(区)(可)(能)(爆)(发)(的)(冲)(突)(进)(行)(简)(要)(分)(析)(,我)(们)(会)(发)(现)(多)(种)(美)(国)(将)(在)(未)(来)(10年)(需)(要)(运)(用)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(可)(能)(局)(势)(。本)(章)(对)(4种)(全)(部)(设)(定)(在)(2020年)(的)(可)(能)(局)(势)(进)(行)(概)(略)(描)(述)(,讨)(论)(与)(每)(种)(局)(势)(相)(关)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(需)(求)(。然)(而)(,为)(了)(正)(确)(引)(入)(这)(些)(局)(势)(,本)(章)(首)(先)(大)(致)(描)(述)(当)(前)(国)(防)(部)(内)(部)(及)(相)(关)(人)(士)(关)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(作)(为)(战)(略)(需)(求)(的)(思)(想)(发)(展)(演)(变)(过)(程)(。  在)(过)(去)(10年)(中)(,大)(量)(不)(同)(的)(组)(织)(和)(国)(防)(专)(家)(提)(出)(了)(关)(于)(军)(事)(力)(量)(对)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(未)(来)(需)(求)(。2003年)(1月)(,时)(任)(国)(防)(部)(副)(部)(长)(的)(保)(罗)(沃)(尔)(福)(威)(茨)((PaulWolfowitz)要)(求)(在)(国)(防)(部)(范)(围)(内)(检)(验)(评)(估)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。作)(为)(这)(项)(任)(务)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,他)(要)(求)(参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(议)(研)(究)(探)(索)(“联)(合)(海)(基)(概)(念)(”(JointSeabasingconcepts)以)(及)(相)(关)(的)(海)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(作)(战)(能)(力)(组)(合)(模)(式)(。在)(接)(下)(来)(的)(2年)(中)(,兰)(德)(公)(司)(对)(该)(问)(题)(进)(行)(了)(充)(分)(研)(究)(,并)(提)(出)(若)(干)(包)(括)(海)(军)(航)(母)(打)(击)(群)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(军)(具)(体)(强)(化)(指)(标)(在)(内)(的)(能)(力)(扩)(展)(建)(议)(。  近)(期)(,包)(括)(战)(略)(和)(预)(算)(评)(估)(中)(心)((theCenterforStrategicandBudgetaryAssessments)、国)(防)(分)(析)(研)(究)(所)((theInstituteforDefenseAnalyses)、新)(美)(国)(安)(全)(中)(心)((theCenterforaNewAmericanSecurity)等)(在)(内)(的)(很)(多)(重)(要)(智)(库)(集)(团)(都)(完)(成)(了)(关)(于)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(预)(想)(的)(报)(告)(。其)(中)(涉)(及)(的)(建)(议)(存)(在)(一)(种)(显)(著)(的)(共)(性)(,即)(缺)(少)(对)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(能)(力)(作)(战)(未)(来)(军)(事)(需)(求)(的)(严)(肃)(讨)(论)(。相)(反)(,许)(多)(组)(织)(都)(选)(择)(强)(调)(“介)(入)(”而)(非)(“进)(入)(”概)(念)(。例)(如)(,战)(略)(和)(预)(算)(评)(估)(中)(心)(近)(期)(发)(布)(的)(论)(文)(认)(为)(美)(国)(无)(法)(承)(受)(维)(持)(有)(效)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(沉)(重)(压)(力)(,相)(反)(应)(该)(调)(整)(为)(确)(保)(“可)(信)(介)(入)(”的)(军)(事)(战)(略)(。在)(这)(种)(改)(进)(的)(战)(略)(指)(导)(下)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(应)(该)(通)(过)(被)(称)(为)(“拒)(止)(威)(慑)(”(deterrencebydenial)的)(方)(式)(保)(护)(美)(国)(利)(益)(。这)(种)(战)(略)(转)(变)(的)(主)(要)(目)(的)(是)(在)(避)(免)(使)(美)(国)(蒙)(受)(过)(多)(代)(价)(的)(情)(况)(下)(通)(过)(集)(中)(力)(量)(阻)(止)(美)(国)(利)(益)(的)(潜)(在)(侵)(犯)(者)(实)(现)(其)(目)(标)(,从)(而)(利)(用)(更)(加)(经)(济)(的)(手)(段)(保)(护)(美)(国)(利)(益)(。战)(略)(和)(预)(算)(评)(估)(中)(心)(提)(出)(的)(理)(论)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(建)(立)(在)(五)(角)(大)(楼)(内)(外)(人)(士)(都)(做)(出)(重)(要)(贡)(献)(的)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”(Air-SeaBattle)概)(念)(基)(础)(上)(。然)(而)(,接)(受)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”概)(念)(所)(描)(述)(的)(可)(信)(介)(入)(战)(略)(意)(味)(着)(——至)(少)(间)(接)(地)(——美)(国)(将)(放)(弃)(强)(调)(对)(遥)(远)(地)(区)(敌)(对)(国)(家)(实)(施)(物)(理)(控)(制)(能)(力)(的)(突)(出)(作)(用)(,而)(聚)(焦)(主)(要)(寻)(求)(实)(现)(保)(持)(美)(国)(介)(入)(的)(“离)(岸)(战)(略)(”(offsettingstrategies)。这)(种)(模)(式)(将)(带)(来)(严)(重)(战)(略)(风)(险)(,会)(轻)(易)(导)(致)(形)(成)(需)(要)(对)(敌)(人)(或)(其)(力)(量)(源)(头)(实)(施)(物)(理)(控)(制)(才)(能)(保)(护)(或)(推)(进)(美)(国)(重)(要)(利)(益)(的)(局)(势)(。  2012年)(初)(,参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(议)(发)(布)(了)(《联)(合)(作)(战)(介)(入)(概)(念)(》(theJointOperationalAccessConcept,JOAC),解)(释)(其)(对)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(如)(何)(对)(抗)(诸)(如)(中)(国)(和)(伊)(朗)(等)(国)(家)(日)(益)(增)(强)(的)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(的)(预)(想)(。这)(种)(概)(念)(支)(持)(对)(联)(合)(作)(战)(行)(动)(进)(行)(多)(项)(重)(要)(调)(整)(,包)(括)(更)(加)(广)(泛)(的)(强)(调)(网)(络)(空)(间)(和)(太)(空)(能)(力)(运)(用)(的)(作)(战)(域)(准)(备)(措)(施)(;通)(过)(多)(条)(独)(立)(作)(战)(线)(打)(击)(敌)(人)(;深)(度)(打)(击)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(,而)(不)(是)(仅)(仅)(迫)(使)(其)(从)(外)(围)(撤)(退)(;以)(及)(对)(敌)(建)(立)(起)(其)(所)(谓)(的)(“本)(地)(作)(战)(域)(优)(势)(”(localdomainsuperiority)55。尽)(管)(将)(可)(信)(介)(入)(战)(略)(放)(在)(突)(出)(位)(置)(上)(,联)(合)(作)(战)(介)(入)(概)(念)(要)(求)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(还)(应)(该)(具)(备)(“从)(突)(袭)(和)(其)(他)(有)(限)(作)(战)(行)(动)(到)(发)(动)(持)(续)(地)(面)(作)(战)(行)(动)(”范)(围)(内)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。然)(而)(,通)(过)(明)(显)(强)(调)(确)(保)(“全)(球)(公)(域)(”安)(全)(介)(入)(途)(径)(的)(方)(式)(,该)(作)(战)(概)(念)(定)(义)(了)(一)(种)(与)(战)(略)(和)(预)(算)(评)(估)(中)(心)(所)(提)(出)(的)(建)(议)(非)(常)(类)(似)(的)(战)(略)(手)(段)(。  该)(战)(略)(存)(在)(的)(首)(要)(问)(题)(是)(,强)(调)(介)(入)(能)(力)(倾)(向)(于)(将)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(主)(动)(权)(转)(交)(给)(美)(国)(的)(对)(手)(。弗)(兰)(克)(霍)(夫)(曼)((FrankHoffman)就)(是)(许)(多)(意)(识)(到)(其)(中)(存)(在)(的)(根)(本)(性)(问)(题)(的)(学)(者)(之)(一)(,他)(在)(多)(年)(前)(就)(指)(出)(下)(列)(关)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(问)(题)(:“迅)(速)(引)(入)(机)(动)(部)(队)(并)(实)(施)(决)(定)(性)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(是)(联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(掌)(握)(主)(动)(权)(并)(改)(变)(冲)(突)(属)(性)(参)(数)(的)(保)(证)(。通)(过)(集)(中)(精)(确)(火)(力)(和)(分)(布)(式)(部)(队)(的)(打)(击)(效)(应)(,指)(挥)(官)(能)(够)(夺)(取)(主)(动)(并)(迫)(使)(敌)(人)(采)(取)(应)(对)(措)(施)(。”他)(还)(继)(续)(写)(道)(:“通)(过)(综)(合)(运)(用)(作)(战)(机)(动)(能)(力)(和)(火)(力)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(还)(会)(使)(敌)(人)(陷)(入)(一)(系)(列)(不)(确)(定)(局)(势)(和)(困)(境)(之)(中)(。为)(了)(对)(美)(军)(纵)(深)(机)(动)(做)(出)(反)(应)(,敌)(指)(挥)(官)(可)(能)(会)(集)(结)(部)(队)(从)(而)(将)(其)(暴)(露)(在)(联)(合)(火)(力)(的)(打)(击)(之)(下)(;如)(果)(其)(保)(持)(固)(定)(部)(署)(,则)(将)(面)(临)(被)(分)(割)(并)(逐)(步)(消)(灭)(的)(危)(险)(。无)(论)(敌)(人)(做)(出)(怎)(样)(的)(应)(对)(决)(策)(,其)(将)(面)(临)(一)(系)(列)(可)(选)(方)(案)(越)(来)(越)(少)(的)(困)(境)(。”如)(果)(试)(图)(在)(未)(来)(保)(持)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(主)(动)(优)(势)(,美)(国)(必)(须)(对)(主)(要)(寻)(求)(确)(保)(可)(信)(介)(入)(途)(径)(以)(及)(在)(美)(国)(选)(定)(的)(时)(机)(和)(位)(置)(对)(潜)(在)(敌)(人)(领)(土)(和)(资)(源)(造)(成)(威)(胁)(的)(两)(种)(战)(略)(方)(式)(之)(间)(的)(区)(别)(做)(出)(深)(刻)(思)(考)(。  聚)(焦)(确)(保)(可)(信)(介)(入)(战)(略)(的)(第)(二)(项)(主)(要)(问)(题)(是)(其)(暗)(含)(建)(立)(介)(入)(通)(路)(本)(身)(就)(足)(以)(解)(决)(冲)(突)(并)(维)(持)(后)(续)(和)(平)(局)(势)(的)(假)(设)(。在)(这)(种)(背)(景)(下)(,我)(们)(有)(必)(要)(重)(新)(强)(调)(地)(面)(作)(战)(行)(动)(在)(武)(装)(冲)(突)(中)(的)(中)(心)(地)(位)(。尽)(管)(强)(调)(重)(要)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(交)(通)(线)(安)(全)(是)(任)(何)(军)(事)(行)(动)(的)(重)(要)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,但)(充)(其)(量)(其)(只)(能)(构)(成)(战)(争)(的)(一)(半)(。如)(果)(不)(能)(维)(持)(此)(类)(通)(道)(很)(容)(易)(造)(成)(军)(事)(行)(动)(的)(失)(败)(,但)(只)(是)(一)(味)(强)(调)(其)(畅)(通)(也)(不)(足)(以)(实)(现)(全)(部)(军)(事)(目)(标)(。正)(如)(英)(国)(海)(军)(历)(史)(学)(家)(朱)(利)(安)(科)(比)(特)(爵)(士)((SirJulianCorbett)多)(年)(前)(指)(出)(的)(:“由)(于)(人)(类)(居)(住)(在)(陆)(地)(而)(不)(是)(海)(洋)(,除)(了)(个)(别)(极)(端)(案)(例)(以)(外)(,国)(家)(之)(间)(的)(重)(大)(问)(题)(总)(是)(由)(一)(个)(国)(家)(的)(陆)(军)(对)(其)(敌)(人)(领)(土)(和)(国)(家)(存)(亡)(造)(成)(的)(威)(胁)(所)(决)(定)(,抑)(或)(是)(对)(其)(中)(一)(个)(国)(家)(的)(海)(军)(创)(造)(出)(条)(件)(使)(陆)(军)(可)(能)(在)(敌)(国)(造)(成)(灾)(难)(后)(果)(的)(恐)(惧)(。”  从)(本)(质)(上)(说)(,任)(何)(聚)(焦)(介)(入)(途)(径)(或)(通)(过)(阻)(止)(实)(现)(威)(慑)(的)(战)(略)(通)(常)(都)(不)(能)(正)(确)(认)(识)((或)(是)(不)(能)(给)(予)(充)(分)(资)(源)(支)(持)()实)(施)(积)(极)(控)(制)(或)(对)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(施)(加)(影)(响)(能)(力)(的)(重)(要)(作)(用)(。无)(论)(明)(确)(表)(示)(还)(是)(其)(中)(隐)(含)(,该)(战)(略)(都)(将)(轻)(易)(忽)(视)(地)(面)(作)(战)(力)(量)(在)(某)(些)(情)(况)(下)(是)(解)(决)(涉)(及)(重)(大)(国)(家)(利)(益)(问)(题)(唯)(一)(有)(效)(手)(段)(的)(事)(实)(。未)(来)(战)(略)(挑)(战)(可)(能)(需)(要)(军)(事)(力)(量)(通)(过)(打)(击)(或)(清)(除)(敌)(人)(获)(取)(政)(治)(、经)(济)(或)(军)(事)(力)(量)(源)(头)(的)(方)(式)(对)(其)(施)(加)(美)(国)(意)(志)(影)(响)(。当)(出)(现)(这)(种)(情)(况)(时)(,通)(常)(唯)(一)(能)(够)(完)(成)(这)(项)(任)(务)(的)(方)(法)(是)(进)(入)(敌)(国)(领)(土)(,在)(任)(务)(要)(求)(的)(时)(间)(范)(围)(内)(对)(其)(政)(府)(和)(民)(众)(实)(施)(积)(极)(控)(制)(。正)(是)(由)(于)(这)(种)(原)(因)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(必)(须)(保)(持)(未)(来)(执)(行)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(高)(效)(能)(力)(。在)(最)(后)(的)(分)(析)(中)(,JC怀)(利)((J.C.Wylie)海)(军)(少)(将)(无)(疑)(做)(出)(了)(正)(确)(判)(断)(:“战)(争)(最)(终)(的)(决)(定)(因)(素)(还)(是)(出)(现)(在)(战)(场)(上)(拿)(枪)(的)(人)(。人)(是)(掌)(握)(战)(争)(控)(制)(权)(的)(终)(极)(力)(量)(,能)(够)(决)(定)(胜)(利)(的)(最)(终)(归)(属)(。”  下)(文)(4个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(呈)(现)(出)(未)(来)(一)(系)(列)(必)(须)(使)(用)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(可)(能)(局)(势)(。第)(一)(个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(讨)(论)(在)(拥)(有)(核)(武)(装)(的)(伊)(朗)(试)(图)(封)(锁)(霍)(尔)(木)(兹)(海)(峡)((StraitsofHormuz)情)(况)(下)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(问)(题)(。第)(二)(个)(描)(述)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(如)(何)(抑)(制)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(内)(部)(陷)(入)(混)(乱)(时)(出)(现)(的)(激)(进)(势)(力)(,支)(持)(打)(击)(恐)(怖)(主)(义)(和)(反)(制)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(。第)(三)(个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(预)(想)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(再)(次)(爆)(发)(的)(情)(况)(,其)(中)(美)(国)(和)(中)(国)(各)(自)(扮)(演)(积)(极)(和)(有)(限)(的)(角)(色)(。最)(后)(,第)(四)(个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(解)(释)(在)(饱)(经)(战)(乱)(的)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(要)(求)(国)(际)(介)(入)(斡)(旋)(处)(于)(交)(战)(状)(态)(的)(不)(同)(派)(别)(,并)(实)(施)(人)(道)(主)(义)(援)(助)(时)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(如)(何)(构)(成)(维)(稳)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。每)(种)(态)(势)(想)(定)(都)(呈)(现)(出)(独)(特)(的)(环)(境)(需)(求)(,但)(很)(明)(显)(未)(来)(可)(能)(出)(现)(多)(种)(危)(机)(同)(时)(爆)(发)(的)(局)(势)(。由)(于)(这)(种)(原)(因)(,我)(们)(不)(仅)(需)(要)(考)(虑)(任)(何)(一)(种)(情)(况)(下)(的)(具)(体)(需)(求)(,还)(要)(考)(虑)(如)(何)(整)(合)(两)(种)(甚)(至)(两)(种)(以)(上)(局)(势)(的)(需)(求)(。  态)(势)(想)(定)(1:作)(战)(力)(量)(投)(射)(  2020年)(,伊)(朗)(已)(经)(在)(强)(烈)(国)(际)(反)(对)(和)(严)(重)(经)(济)(制)(裁)(条)(件)(下)(形)(成)(中)(等)(规)(模)(核)(武)(器)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,生)(产)(出)(射)(程)(达)(到)(大)(约)(3100英)(里)(,能)(够)(携)(带)(核)(装)(置)(的)(“流)(星)(-4”(Shahab-4)导)(弹)(系)(统)(。全)(世)(界)(国)(家)(普)(遍)(加)(入)(严)(厉)(声)(讨)(抗)(议)(的)(阵)(营)(,但)(以)(色)(列)(和)(美)(国)(并)(未)(威)(胁)(采)(取)(军)(事)(手)(段)(打)(击)(伊)(朗)(以)(阻)(止)(或)(延)(缓)(其)(核)(项)(目)(。在)(美)(国)(和)(国)(际)(社)(会)(并)(没)(有)(采)(取)(实)(质)(性)(措)(施)(的)(鼓)(动)(下)(,伊)(朗)(认)(为)(其)(核)(能)(力)(将)(威)(慑)(任)(何)(未)(来)(直)(接)(打)(击)(行)(动)(并)(迎)(来)(了)(建)(立)(地)(区)(霸)(权)(的)(时)(机)(,伊)(朗)(宣)(布)(霍)(尔)(木)(兹)(海)(峡)(处)(于)(该)(国)(控)(制)(之)(下)(,使)(用)(海)(军)(和)(岸)(防)(部)(队)(封)(锁)(海)(峡)(,禁)(止)(任)(何)(未)(经)(德)(黑)(兰)(批)(准)(的)(商)(业)(船)(舶)(通)(过)(。作)(为)(回)(应)(,美)(国)(及)(其)(盟)(友)(批)(准)(部)(署)(联)(合)(任)(务)(部)(队)(使)(用)(武)(力)(手)(段)(重)(新)(打)(开)(这)(条)(水)(道)(,同)(时)(避)(免)(跨)(过)(核)(门)(槛)(。联)(军)(部)(队)(不)(仅)(需)(要)(解)(除)(海)(峡)(封)(锁)(,还)(要)(确)(保)(伊)(朗)(能)(够)(实)(施)(影)(响)(或)(破)(坏)(航)(行)(的)(邻)(近)(地)(区)(安)(全)(,并)(摧)(毁)(伊)(朗)(攻)(击)(能)(力)(从)(而)(在)(波)(斯)(湾)(重)(新)(建)(立)(国)(际)(商)(业)(秩)(序)(。  第)(一)(个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(时)(间)(设)(定)(在)(2020年)(,已)(经)(得)(到)(核)(武)(装)(的)(伊)(朗)(封)(锁)(了)(霍)(尔)(木)(兹)(海)(峡)(,美)(国)(及)(其)(盟)(友)(面)(临)(武)(力)(打)(开)(这)(条)(海)(上)(通)(路)(的)(挑)(战)(。除)(了)(能)(够)(得)(到)(希)(望)(从)(高)(油)(价)(中)(受)(益)(的)(俄)(罗)(斯)(的)(支)(持)(,伊)(朗)(在)(国)(际)(上)(处)(于)(孤)(立)(状)(态)(。但)(其)(行)(动)(在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(得)(到)(伊)(拉)(克)(、叙)(利)(亚)(以)(及)(其)(他)(几)(个)(地)(区)(国)(家)(的)(支)(持)(,其)(目)(标)(是)(对)(美)(国)(的)(影)(响)(力)(和)(公)(信)(力)(造)(成)(破)(坏)(。在)(美)(国)(及)(其)(北)(约)(盟)(友)(、印)(度)(、澳)(大)(利)(亚)(和)(日)(本)(的)(协)(助)(下)(,海)(湾)(合)(作)(委)(员)(会)((GulfCooperationCouncil,GCC)国)(家)(与)(伊)(朗)(爆)(发)(战)(争)(,中)(国)(和)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(则)(保)(持)(中)(立)(。随)(着)(危)(机)(深)(入)(发)(展)(,联)(军)(国)(家)(寻)(求)(在)(周)(边)(地)(区)(获)(取)(建)(立)(基)(地)(和)(过)(境)(飞)(行)(权)(,形)(成)(准)(备)(发)(动)(进)(攻)(的)(态)(势)(。  以)(美)(国)(为)(首)(的)(盟)(军)(必)(须)(周)(密)(制)(定)(作)(战)(方)(案)(以)(避)(免)(核)(战)(争)(的)(爆)(发)(。如)(果)(不)(彻)(底)(消)(灭)(部)(署)(于)(阿)(巴)(斯)(港)((BandarAbbas)内)(和)(周)(围)(海)(域)(的)(伊)(朗)(海)(军)(,摧)(毁)(广)(泛)(分)(布)(在)(伊)(朗)(海)(岸)(的)(导)(弹)(设)(施)(,美)(国)(无)(法)(确)(保)(海)(峡)(安)(全)(和)(清)(除)(伊)(朗)(阻)(碍)(海)(湾)(地)(区)(商)(业)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(。  为)(了)(确)(保)(永)(久)(清)(除)(威)(胁)(,联)(盟)(军)(队)(得)(到)(联)(合)(国)(授)(权)(在)(波)(斯)(湾)(北)(部)(海)(岸)(向)(外)(延)(伸)(100英)(里)(直)(至)(阿)(巴)(斯)(港)(东)(、西)(两)(侧)(的)(区)(域)(建)(立)(并)(强)(制)(推)(行)(国)(际)(非)(军)(事)(区)((internationaldemilitarizedzone,DMZ)。联)(军)(向)(海)(湾)(地)(区)(部)(署)(联)(合)(部)(队)(,开)(展)(重)(新)(开)(放)(海)(峡)(的)(军)(事)(行)(动)(。在)(数)(周)(时)(间)(内)(,伊)(朗)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(军)(事)(力)(量)(以)(及)(岸)(基)(导)(弹)(防)(御)(系)(统)(被)(摧)(毁)(。在)(夺)(取)(制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(后)(,联)(军)(开)(始)(集)(结)(建)(立)(国)(际)(非)(军)(事)(区)(的)(国)(际)(军)(队)(。伊)(朗)(试)(图)(通)(过)(向)(海)(湾)(合)(作)(委)(员)(会)(国)(家)(和)(以)(色)(列)(发)(动)(导)(弹)(袭)(击)(扩)(大)(冲)(突)(范)(围)(,但)(大)(多)(数)(来)(袭)(导)(弹)(都)(被)(友)(军)(导)(弹)(防)(御)(系)(统)(击)(落)(,伊)(朗)(并)(未)(发)(射)(携)(带)(核)(装)(置)(的)(导)(弹)(。随)(后)(,联)(军)(部)(署)(一)(支)(联)(合)(部)(队)(占)(领)(伊)(朗)(海)(岸)(并)(建)(立)(国)(际)(非)(军)(事)(区)(。在)(美)(国)(航)(母)(打)(击)(群)(、以)(海)(湾)(地)(区)(为)(基)(地)(的)(空)(军)(部)(队)(和)(联)(军)(空)(军)(力)(量)(的)(支)(持)(下)(,2个)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(旅)(在)(阿)(巴)(斯)(港)(以)(西)(伊)(朗)(海)(岸)(登)(陆)(。陆)(军)(突)(击)(队)(和)(空)(降)(兵)(部)(队)(在)(靠)(近)(阿)(巴)(斯)(港)(附)(近)(的)(伊)(朗)(本)(土)(机)(场)(和)(港)(口)(设)(施)(发)(动)(突)(袭)(,另)(外)(一)(支)(国)(际)(军)(队)(在)(海)(岸)(地)(带)(东)(侧)(登)(陆)(。在)(控)(制)(必)(要)(的)(机)(场)(和)(海)(上)(港)(口)(后)(,联)(军)(使)(用)(空)(中)(力)(量)(阻)(截)(任)(何)(试)(图)(向)(南)(移)(动)(的)(伊)(朗)(军)(队)(。综)(合)(运)(用)(情)(报)(行)(动)(、特)(种)(作)(战)(和)(网)(络)(攻)(击)(手)(段)(,联)(军)(使)(伊)(朗)(的)(核)(项)(目)(陷)(入)(瘫)(痪)(,排)(除)(其)(运)(用)(的)(可)(能)(性)(。美)(国)(后)(续)(部)(队)(通)(过)(海)(上)(通)(道)(抵)(达)(伊)(朗)(南)(部)(,增)(援)(的)(装)(甲)(机)(械)(化)(部)(队)(从)(阿)(巴)(斯)(港)(向)(外)(发)(展)(进)(攻)(,并)(建)(立)(起)(防)(御)(阵)(地)(确)(保)(国)(际)(非)(军)(事)(区)(的)(稳)(固)(。  数)(月)(之)(后)(,其)(他)(国)(际)(部)(队)(陆)(续)(抵)(达)(并)(承)(担)(各)(自)(在)(非)(军)(事)(区)(内)(的)(职)(责)(。在)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(整)(个)(过)(程)(中)(,联)(军)(部)(队)(都)(释)(放)(出)(清)(楚)(的)(信)(息)(,如)(果)(伊)(朗)(宣)(布)(放)(弃)(核)(计)(划)(、销)(毁)(核)(原)(料)(并)(保)(证)(国)(际)(社)(会)(对)(海)(峡)(内)(商)(业)(活)(动)(的)(控)(制)(,联)(军)(部)(队)(就)(将)(撤)(离)(该)(地)(区)(。经)(历)(一)(段)(时)(间)(后)(,伊)(朗)(的)(孤)(立)(状)(态)(和)(失)(去)(与)(石)(油)(相)(关)(的)(国)(家)(收)(益)(导)(致)(国)(内)(局)(势)(日)(益)(恶)(化)(,国)(家)(面)(临)(的)(威)(胁)(迫)(使)(德)(黑)(兰)(屈)(服)(。数)(周)(内)(,国)(际)(工)(程)(师)(到)(达)(伊)(朗)(并)(开)(始)(拆)(除)(其)(核)(项)(目)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,联)(军)(国)(家)(与)(伊)(朗)(签)(属)(条)(约)(,规)(定)(军)(事)(力)(量)(将)(在)(核)(设)(施)(完)(全)(拆)(除)(后)(一)(年)(内)(全)(部)(撤)(离)(。  正)(如)(该)(态)(势)(想)(定)(所)(显)(示)(的)(,伊)(朗)(不)(可)(能)(在)(霍)(尔)(木)(兹)(海)(峡)(地)(区)(主)(动)(挑)(起)(核)(战)(争)(。然)(而)(,在)(美)(国)(及)(其)(盟)(友)(实)(际)(动)(用)(军)(事)(力)(量)(迫)(使)(局)(势)(发)(生)(改)(变)(长)(期)(动)(态)(变)(化)(的)(过)(程)(中)(,伊)(朗)(依)(然)(占)(据)(主)(动)(优)(势)(并)(要)(挟)(全)(世)(界)(。运)(用)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(力)(量)(夺)(取)(主)(动)(并)(改)(变)(基)(本)(力)(量)(平)(衡)(是)(造)(成)(战)(争)(动)(能)(变)(化)(的)(根)(本)(原)(因)(。一)(旦)(伊)(朗)(控)(制)(海)(峡)(和)(南)(部)(海)(岸)(的)(力)(量)(被)(消)(灭)(,局)(势)(的)(主)(动)(权)(就)(转)(移)(到)(美)(国)(及)(其)(盟)(友)(一)(方)(。只)(有)(在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,联)(军)(才)(能)(实)(现)(与)(国)(际)(法)(及)(其)(利)(益)(保)(持)(一)(致)(的)(结)(果)(。  在)(此)(类)(军)(事)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(的)(关)(键)(军)(事)(能)(力)(包)(括)(:迅)(速)(部)(署)(、夺)(取)(制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(、摧)(毁)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”系)(统)(、向)(敌)(国)(领)(土)(投)(射)(军)(事)(力)(量)(以)(及)(防)(御)(具)(备)(攻)(击)(能)(力)(的)(敌)(军)(等)(等)(。为)(了)(实)(现)(这)(些)(目)(标)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(能)(够)(综)(合)(运)(用)(两)(栖)(、空)(中)(突)(击)(和)(空)(降)(兵)(部)(队)(作)(战)(能)(力)(确)(保)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(安)(全)(。随)(后)(,其)(必)(须)(迅)(速)(向)(前)(方)(输)(送)(机)(动)(装)(甲)(部)(队)(和)(物)(资)(,从)(滩)(头)(地)(区)(向)(外)(辐)(射)(作)(战)(力)(量)(从)(而)(建)(立)(并)(强)(制)(推)(行)(非)(军)(事)(区)(。一)(些)(军)(事)(决)(策)(者)(可)(能)(会)(认)(为)(此)(类)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(目)(标)(在)(不)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,或)(者)(在)(轻)(度)(进)(入)(的)(情)(况)(下)(也)(能)(够)(实)(现)(。然)(而)(,如)(果)(不)(能)(控)(制)(战)(略)(水)(道)(两)(岸)(的)(陆)(地)(区)(域)(,仅)(仅)(是)(惩)(罚)(性)(的)(远)(征)(军)(事)(行)(动)(可)(能)(不)(会)(带)(来)(任)(何)(实)(质)(性)(的)(影)(响)(。  态)(势)(想)(定)(2:打)(击)(恐)(怖)(主)(义)(和)(反)(制)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(  巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(国)(内)(动)(乱)(已)(经)(持)(续)(6年)(时)(间)(并)(且)(其)(程)(度)(日)(益)(增)(强)(。自)(北)(约)(军)(队)(于)(2014年)(末)(撤)(离)(阿)(富)(汗)(后)(,连)(续)(4届)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(政)(府)(都)(未)(能)(有)(效)(控)(制)(国)(内)(局)(势)(。尽)(管)(面)(临)(严)(峻)(安)(全)(和)(国)(际)(环)(境)(,该)(国)(连)(续)(2次)(选)(举)(都)(遭)(受)(广)(泛)(存)(在)(的)(腐)(败)(影)(响)(,严)(重)(暴)(力)(行)(为)(遍)(布)(全)(国)(并)(不)(断)(扩)(散)(。平)(民)(主)(义)(者)(和)(伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(政)(治)(党)(派)(为)(权)(力)(不)(断)(争)(斗)(,国)(家)(陷)(入)(混)(乱)(状)(态)(。在)(一)(场)(军)(事)(政)(变)(失)(败)(之)(后)(,大)(批)(高)(级)(军)(官)(被)(伊)(斯)(兰)(军)(事)(组)(织)(刺)(杀)(。伊)(斯)(兰)(神)(学)(者)(协)(会)((JamiatUlema-e-Islam)掌)(握)(了)(权)(力)(,宣)(布)(在)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(建)(立)(新)(的)(伊)(斯)(兰)(国)(家)(。内)(战)(爆)(发)(,民)(兵)(组)(织)(袭)(击)(分)(布)(在)(全)(国)(的)(军)(事)(设)(施)(,包)(括)(数)(个)(存)(有)(核)(武)(器)(的)(基)(地)(。据)(估)(计)(,在)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(掌)(握)(的)(110枚)(核)(武)(器)(中)(,大)(约)(40枚)(落)(入)(伊)(斯)(兰)(激)(进)(组)(织)(手)(中)(。印)(度)(调)(动)(其)(武)(装)(力)(量)(威)(胁)(入)(侵)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(从)(而)(使)(合)(法)(的)(民)(事)(机)(构)(重)(新)(掌)(握)(权)(力)(。面)(对)(别)(无)(选)(择)(的)(局)(面)(,美)(国)(同)(意)(在)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(境)(内)(执)(行)(一)(系)(列)(精)(确)(军)(事)(入)(侵)(行)(动)(,确)(保)(失)(去)(控)(制)(的)(核)(原)(料)(安)(全)(,避)(免)(一)(场)(新)(的)(印)(巴)(战)(争)(。  第)(2个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(假)(设)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(对)(其)(核)(武)(库)(失)(去)(控)(制)(。激)(进)(的)(伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(主)(义)(份)(子)(接)(管)(政)(府)(,大)(量)(持)(有)(中)(型)(和)(轻)(型)(武)(器)(的)(民)(兵)(组)(织)(占)(领)(了)(若)(干)(军)(事)(设)(施)(,其)(中)(包)(括)(2座)(存)(有)(核)(武)(器)(的)(基)(地)(。充)(分)(意)(识)(到)(可)(能)(遭)(到)(的)(打)(击)(,民)(兵)(组)(织)(加)(强)(其)(所)(据)(守)(要)(点)(的)(防)(御)(,并)(击)(退)(了)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(陆)(军)(的)(初)(始)(进)(攻)(。作)(为)(回)(应)(,美)(国)(情)(报)(机)(构)(与)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(当)(局)(取)(得)(联)(系)(,要)(求)(其)(进)(行)(跨)(军)(队)(情)(报)((Inter-ServicesIntelligence)支)(持)(,向)(其)(提)(供)(援)(助)(以)(解)(决)(危)(机)(,阻)(止)(威)(胁)(发)(动)(战)(争)(的)(印)(度)(采)(取)(进)(一)(步)(措)(施)(。美)(国)(特)(种)(部)(队)(得)(到)(命)(令)(执)(行)(一)(系)(列)(同)(步)(实)(施)(的)(突)(袭)(行)(动)(,目)(的)(是)(击)(败)(民)(兵)(组)(织)(、确)(保)(核)(物)(质)(安)(全)(并)(对)(其)(进)(行)(控)(制)(,直)(到)(移)(交)(到)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(合)(法)(政)(权)(手)(中)(。如)(果)(不)(能)(实)(现)(安)(全)(移)(交)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(被)(要)(求)(在)(当)(地)(拆)(除)(或)(摧)(毁)(该)(武)(器)(。在)(数)(天)(内)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(被)(部)(署)(至)(美)(国)(位)(于)(阿)(拉)(伯)(海)(的)(航)(空)(母)(舰)(以)(及)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(境)(内)(其)(他)(隐)(蔽)(位)(置)(,为)(突)(袭)(行)(动)(做)(好)(充)(分)(准)(备)(。  突)(袭)(位)(置)(的)(选)(择)(要)(求)(美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(与)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(特)(种)(战)(斗)(群)((SpecialServiceGroup)指)(挥)(官)(密)(切)(协)(同)(,在)(其)(通)(过)(空)(中)(和)(地)(面)(力)(量)(实)(施)(进)(攻)(的)(过)(程)(中)(,利)(用)(空)(降)(和)(机)(降)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(渗)(透)(任)(务)(。在)(空)(降)(兵)(密)(集)(火)(力)(和)(美)(国)(国)(防)(资)(产)(提)(供)(的)(实)(时)(监)(视)(能)(力)(的)(支)(援)(下)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(战)(胜)(民)(兵)(组)(织)(重)(新)(夺)(取)(2座)(基)(地)(的)(控)(制)(权)(。由)(于)(情)(报)(信)(息)(不)(完)(整)(以)(及)(迅)(速)(完)(成)(攻)(击)(行)(动)(的)(需)(要)(,第)(三)(个)(特)(种)(部)(队)(单)(位)(在)(完)(成)(渗)(透)(行)(动)(后)(发)(现)(其)(面)(临)(着)(超)(过)(预)(判)(两)(倍)(规)(模)(的)(敌)(人)(。尽)(管)(能)(够)(控)(制)(第)(三)(座)(军)(事)(设)(施)(的)(部)(分)(位)(置)(,但)(攻)(击)(部)(队)(遭)(受)(严)(重)(伤)(亡)(,为)(了)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(必)(须)(得)(到)(增)(援)(。巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(和)(美)(国)(特)(种)(部)(队)(再)(次)(部)(署)(一)(支)(营)(级)(规)(模)(的)(突)(击)(队)(,在)(重)(型)(装)(甲)(部)(队)(的)(掩)(护)(下)(,向)(第)(三)(支)(攻)(击)(部)(队)(实)(施)(增)(援)(。24小)(时)(内)(,攻)(击)(部)(队)(控)(制)(了)(第)(三)(座)(军)(事)(设)(施)(。最)(终)(,占)(领)(两)(座)(军)(事)(基)(地)(的)(特)(种)(部)(队)(在)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(有)(关)(部)(队)(的)(协)(助)(下)(永)(久)(销)(毁)(了)(核)(武)(器)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,遭)(到)(攻)(击)(的)(消)(息)(传)(播)(出)(去)(,大)(批)(愤)(怒)(的)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(民)(事)(和)(军)(事)(人)(员)(开)(始)(集)(结)(并)(向)(三)(座)(军)(事)(设)(施)(所)(在)(地)(移)(动)(,要)(求)(任)(何)(参)(与)(进)(攻)(的)(美)(国)(人)(都)(必)(须)(交)(给)(他)(们)(按)(照)(伊)(斯)(兰)(法)(律)(接)(受)(审)(判)(和)(处)(罚)(。又)(经)(历)(了)(一)(天)(时)(间)(,其)(他)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(军)(队)(通)(过)(陆)(路)(抵)(达)(并)(支)(援)(上)(述)(基)(地)(,但)(由)(于)(愤)(怒)(的)(暴)(徒)(数)(量)(不)(断)(增)(加)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(从)(地)(面)(撤)(离)(的)(计)(划)(面)(临)(巨)(大)(困)(难)(。相)(反)(,他)(们)(必)(须)(首)(先)(利)(用)(直)(升)(机)(转)(移)(到)(另)(外)(一)(处)(转)(运)(点)(,然)(后)(乘)(大)(型)(运)(输)(机)(撤)(离)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(。美)(国)(-巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(特)(种)(部)(队)(继)(续)(在)(三)(个)(基)(地)(外)(围)(据)(守)(2天)(时)(间)(,最)(终)(在)(夜)(暗)(条)(件)(的)(掩)(护)(下)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(携)(带)(关)(键)(的)(核)(原)(料)(物)(质)(顺)(利)(撤)(出)(战)(场)(回)(国)(。  该)(态)(势)(想)(定)(呈)(现)(出)(可)(以)(被)(称)(为)(“核)(噩)(梦)(”的)(局)(势)(,其)(中)(响)(应)(速)(度)(是)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(的)(关)(键)(因)(素)(。美)(国)(和)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(特)(种)(部)(队)(必)(须)(在)(数)(天)(时)(间)(内)(解)(决)(危)(机)(,绝)(对)(不)(能)(延)(长)(至)(数)(周)(甚)(至)(数)(月)(。此)(外)(,美)(国)(的)(干)(预)(行)(动)(是)(延)(缓)(印)(度)(的)(单)(边)(军)(事)(行)(动)(,阻)(止)(可)(能)(出)(现)(的)(地)(区)(冲)(突)(局)(势)(的)(必)(要)(手)(段)(。尽)(管)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(军)(事)(力)(量)(具)(备)(足)(够)(的)(及)(时)(响)(应)(部)(队)(,但)(美)(国)(军)(队)(的)(情)(报)(支)(持)(、精)(确)(火)(力)(以)(及)(政)(治)(掩)(护)(都)(是)(确)(保)(行)(动)(取)(得)(成)(功)(的)(重)(要)(因)(素)(。执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(敌)(对)(地)(区)(、夺)(取)(重)(要)(物)(资)(并)(成)(功)(完)(成)(撤)(离)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(被)(证)(实)(具)(有)(关)(键)(意)(义)(。  在)(此)(类)(军)(事)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(的)(关)(键)(军)(事)(能)(力)(包)(括)(:迅)(速)(部)(署)(并)(在)(敌)(对)(地)(区)(插)(入)(1至)(2个)(营)(级)(规)(模)(的)(高)(训)(练)(水)(平)(作)(战)(单)(位)(执)(行)(直)(接)(作)(战)(行)(动)(、敏)(感)(场)(所)(刺)(探)((sensitivesiteexploitation)、维)(持)(遥)(远)(地)(区)(作)(战)(行)(动)(并)(在)(任)(务)(完)(成)(后)(撤)(离)(部)(队)(。为)(了)(在)(未)(来)(此)(类)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(维)(持)(一)(支)(健)(壮)(、高)(效)(的)(特)(种)(作)(战)(力)(量)(,能)(够)(在)(紧)(急)(通)(知)(条)(件)(下)(实)(施)(全)(球)(行)(动)(。此)(外)(,美)(国)(还)(要)(保)(持)(隐)(蔽)(地)(输)(送)(这)(种)(作)(战)(力)(量)(、通)(过)(常)(规)(手)(段)(对)(其)(进)(行)(补)(给)(、提)(供)(空)(中)(火)(力)(支)(援)(和)(控)(制)(以)(及)(向)(靠)(前)(部)(署)(部)(队)(提)(供)(实)(时)(情)(报)(保)(障)(的)(能)(力)(。这)(些)(作)(战)(能)(力)(将)(继)(续)(发)(挥)(不)(可)(估)(量)(的)(作)(用)(,尤)(其)(在)(越)(来)(越)(多)(的)(第)(三)(世)(界)(国)(家)(转)(向)(发)(展)(核)(武)(器)(战)(略)(的)(背)(景)(下)(。如)(果)(不)(能)(形)(成)(这)(些)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,无)(论)(是)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(还)(是)(其)(他)(掌)(握)(或)(者)(希)(望)(掌)(握)(核)(武)(器)(的)(国)(家)(和)(地)(区)(出)(现)(“核)(失)(控)(”局)(势)(时)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(可)(能)(都)(无)(法)(向)(总)(统)(提)(供)(高)(效)(的)(备)(选)(方)(案)(。  态)(势)(想)(定)(3:威)(慑)(并)(击)(败)(挑)(衅)(行)(动)(  2020年)(,朝)(鲜)(和)(韩)(国)(关)(系)(严)(重)(恶)(化)(至)(战)(后)(最)(低)(水)(平)(。朝)(鲜)(独)(裁)(者)(金)(正)(恩)(强)(化)(其)(政)(治)(言)(论)(并)(宣)(布)(对)(位)(于)(韩)(国)(海)(洋)(边)(界)(以)(内)(的)(2座)(岛)(屿)(群)(拥)(有)(主)(权)(。双)(方)(互)(相)(进)(行)(炮)(击)(的)(现)(象)(时)(有)(发)(生)(,一)(艘)(韩)(国)(舰)(艇)(遭)(到)(朝)(鲜)(潜)(艇)(鱼)(雷)(袭)(击)(。随)(后)(,大)(量)(渗)(透)(地)(道)(在)(非)(军)(事)(区)(内)(被)(发)(现)(。此)(时)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(已)(经)(大)(部)(分)(从)(半)(岛)(撤)(离)(,只)(有)(指)(挥)(和)(保)(障)(部)(队)(还)(留)(在)(韩)(国)(。在)(面)(临)(灾)(荒)(和)(日)(益)(增)(强)(的)(国)(内)(不)(稳)(定)(局)(势)(的)(压)(力)(下)(,金)(正)(恩)(要)(求)(民)(众)(结)(束)(半)(岛)(分)(裂)(状)(态)(,在)(其)(领)(导)(下)(统)(一)(整)(个)(国)(家)(。在)(未)(正)(式)(通)(知)(中)(国)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,金)(正)(恩)(发)(动)(全)(面)(进)(攻)(。韩)(国)(军)(队)(在)(开)(始)(阶)(段)(陷)(入)(被)(动)(,但)(在)(1个)(星)(期)(内)(他)(们)(就)(挫)(败)(了)(朝)(鲜)(军)(队)(的)(进)(攻)(势)(头)(。韩)(国)(第)(一)(时)(间)(内)(要)(求)(美)(国)(履)(行)(防)(御)(条)(约)(义)(务)(,派)(出)(部)(队)(支)(援)(并)(帮)(助)(其)(武)(力)(统)(一)(朝)(鲜)(半)(岛)(。美)(国)(及)(其)(太)(平)(洋)(盟)(国)(回)(到)(朝)(鲜)(半)(岛)(,帮)(助)(韩)(国)(抵)(抗)(平)(壤)(的)(进)(攻)(,结)(束)(金)(正)(恩)(统)(治)(并)(确)(保)(朝)(鲜)(核)(设)(施)(及)(原)(料)(的)(安)(全)(。  在)(第)(三)(个)(可)(能)(出)(现)(的)(2020年)(局)(势)(中)(,朝)(鲜)(突)(然)(袭)(击)(韩)(国)(的)(事)(件)(震)(惊)(全)(世)(界)(。当)(两)(国)(再)(次)(陷)(入)(敌)(对)(状)(态)(后)(,美)(国)(及)(其)(亚)(洲)(盟)(友)(履)(行)(其)(防)(御)(条)(约)(义)(务)(,为)(韩)(国)(提)(供)(军)(事)(援)(助)(。然)(而)(,第)(二)(次)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(开)(始)(阶)(段)(的)(局)(势)(与)(70年)(前)(迥)(然)(不)(同)(。事)(实)(上)(,韩)(国)(部)(队)(基)(本)(上)(能)(够)(完)(全)(依)(靠)(本)(国)(力)(量)(抵)(制)(北)(方)(的)(进)(攻)(,不)(会)(丧)(失)(大)(片)(领)(土)(。虽)(然)(首)(尔)(和)(其)(他)(主)(要)(城)(市)(都)(会)(遭)(到)(严)(重)(破)(坏)(,但)(依)(然)(处)(于)(韩)(国)(控)(制)(之)(下)(。在)(初)(期)(胜)(利)(局)(势)(的)(激)(励)(下)(,韩)(国)(决)(定)(采)(取)(进)(攻)(行)(动)(,推)(翻)(金)(正)(恩)(的)(统)(治)(并)(统)(一)(整)(个)(半)(岛)(地)(区)(。世)(界)(舆)(论)(对)(韩)(国)(表)(示)(强)(烈)(支)(持)(,但)(与)(此)(同)(时)(,美)(国)(和)(韩)(国)(与)(中)(国)(展)(开)(对)(话)(,阻)(止)(其)(卷)(入)(战)(争)(。明)(显)(被)(其)(伙)(伴)(国)(家)(的)(行)(为)(所)(激)(怒)(,中)(国)(秘)(密)(同)(意)(不)(加)(入)(战)(争)(,但)(要)(求)(联)(合)(国)(军)(不)(能)(接)(近)(或)(在)(东)(北)(边)(境)(地)(区)(实)(施)(军)(事)(行)(动)(。不)(久)(以)(后)(,韩)(国)(军)(队)(越)(过)(北)(纬)(38度)(线)(,在)(经)(过)(数)(周)(战)(斗)(后)(完)(成)(对)(平)(壤)(的)(占)(领)(,金)(正)(恩)(所)(领)(导)(的)(集)(权)(政)(府)(彻)(底)(倒)(台)(。在)(结)(束)(长)(达)(70年)(的)(分)(裂)(状)(态)(后)(,韩)(国)(努)(力)(寻)(找)(重)(新)(统)(一)(的)(方)(式)(,与)(此)(同)(时)(,联)(合)(国)(军)(队)(抢)(在)(朝)(鲜)(核)(原)(料)(在)(被)(转)(移)(、藏)(匿)(或)(扩)(散)(之)(前)(将)(其)(妥)(善)(处)(理)(。  再)(次)(爆)(发)(的)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(至)(少)(需)(要)(美)(国)(军)(队)(通)(过)(两)(种)(方)(式)(运)(用)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。首)(先)(是)(从)(海)(上)(实)(施)(常)(规)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,利)(用)(两)(栖)(作)(战)(部)(队)(在)(敌)(战)(斗)(编)(队)(背)(后)(实)(施)(登)(陆)(,从)(而)(对)(其)(交)(通)(线)(构)(成)(威)(胁)(并)(在)(半)(岛)(内)(组)(织)(北)(上)(或)(者)(南)(下)(的)(进)(攻)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。此)(类)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(成)(功)(需)(要)(建)(立)(空)(中)(优)(势)(,预)(备)(至)(少)(保)(障)(2个)(旅)(地)(面)(部)(队)(的)(攻)(击)(舰)(艇)(,形)(成)(有)(效)(防)(御)(能)(力)(防)(止)(敌)(空)(中)(火)(力)(、各)(型)(火)(箭)(炮)(、火)(炮)(和)(迫)(击)(炮)(的)(袭)(击)(。此)(外)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(成)(功)(还)(要)(求)(地)(面)(部)(队)(具)(备)(足)(够)(机)(动)(防)(护)(火)(力)(系)(统)(执)(行)(半)(岛)(内)(机)(动)(作)(战)(任)(务)(,否)(则)(只)(能)(使)(用)(防)(护)(力)(弱)(的)(轻)(型)(步)(兵)(部)(队)(。  未)(来)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(中)(第)(二)(种)(关)(键)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(形)(式)(与)(平)(壤)(政)(权)(的)(倒)(台)(和)(确)(保)(核)(原)(料)(安)(全)(的)(敏)(感)(问)(题)(有)(关)(。北)(朝)(鲜)(政)(府)(建)(立)(了)(多)(种)(与)(核)(项)(目)(有)(关)(的)(军)(事)(设)(施)(,大)(多)(数)(位)(于)(孤)(立)(地)(区)(和)(恶)(劣)(地)(形)(环)(境)(中)(。美)(国)(军)(队)(可)(能)(需)(要)(运)(用)(空)(降)(或)(机)(降)(方)(式)(实)(施)(突)(袭)(从)(而)(确)(保)(此)(类)(偏)(僻)(设)(施)(的)(安)(全)(,尤)(其)(在)(前)(政)(府)(残)(余)(组)(织)(或)(政)(治)(顽)(固)(份)(子)(拒)(绝)(投)(降)(的)(情)(况)(下)(。尽)(管)(此)(类)(抵)(抗)(行)(动)(在)(经)(历)(一)(段)(时)(间)(后)(最)(终)(都)(会)(被)(消)(灭)(,但)(美)(国)(还)(是)(有)(必)(要)(同)(时)(运)(用)(多)(个)(营)(级)(规)(模)(单)(位)(实)(施)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,美)(国)(空)(军)(和)(地)(面)(作)(战)(部)(队)(分)(别)(需)(要)(在)(外)(层)(和)(内)(部)(实)(施)(警)(戒)(从)(而)(共)(同)(确)(保)(核)(设)(施)(安)(全)(。  在)(此)(类)(军)(事)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(的)(关)(键)(军)(事)(能)(力)(包)(括)(:实)(现)(本)(地)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(优)(势)(,战)(胜)(敌)(无)(人)(机)(以)(及)(运)(用)(两)(栖)(部)(队)(迅)(速)(抢)(占)(半)(岛)(内)(部)(地)(区)(威)(胁)(或)(切)(断)(敌)(交)(通)(线)(等)(等)(。为)(了)(成)(功)(实)(现)(军)(事)(行)(动)(目)(标)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(还)(需)(要)(针)(对)(所)(有)(可)(能)(核)(设)(施)(的)(广)(泛)(的)(监)(视)(和)(情)(报)(能)(力)(、设)(施)(完)(备)(的)(地)(区)(机)(场)(、高)(效)(的)(联)(合)(火)(力)(、以)(及)(至)(少)(若)(干)(个)(战)(备)(充)(分)(,具)(备)(武)(器)(探)(测)(、爆)(炸)(物)(处)(理)(和)(其)(他)(多)(种)(工)(程)(技)(术)(专)(长)(的)(空)(降)(营)(。此)(外)(,一)(旦)(敏)(感)(的)(核)(设)(施)(得)(到)(控)(制)(,地)(面)(部)(队)(必)(须)(在)(复)(杂)(恶)(劣)(的)(地)(形)(环)(境)(中)(迅)(速)(机)(动)(,在)(可)(能)(与)(敌)(运)(动)(中)(接)(近)(作)(战)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,与)(靠)(前)(部)(署)(的)(进)(入)(部)(队)(建)(立)(联)(络)(并)(对)(其)(实)(施)(增)(援)(。如)(果)(缺)(乏)(此)(类)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,美)(国)(可)(能)(需)(要)(面)(对)(无)(法)(确)(保)(核)(设)(施)(安)(全)(的)(巨)(大)(风)(险)(。  态)(势)(想)(定)(4:维)(稳)(和)(人)(道)(主)(义)(援)(助)(行)(动)(  在)(这)(个)(非)(洲)(人)(口)(规)(模)(最)(大)(并)(且)(石)(油)(资)(源)(最)(为)(丰)(富)(的)(国)(家)(,伊)(斯)(兰)(军)(事)(组)(织)(势)(力)(在)(北)(方)(约)(3/4国)(土)(范)(围)(地)(区)(内)(迅)(速)(膨)(胀)(。首)(都)(阿)(布)(贾)((Abuja)的)(冲)(突)(已)(经)(持)(续)(超)(过)(2年)(时)(间)(,伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(主)(义)(团)(体)(占)(据)(了)(越)(来)(越)(多)(的)(社)(会)(和)(经)(济)(部)(门)(。在)(尼)(日)(尔)(、乍)(得)(和)(苏)(丹)(等)(国)(的)(军)(事)(支)(持)(下)(,伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(主)(义)(份)(子)(屠)(杀)(了)(数)(千)(名)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(基)(督)(教)(信)(徒)(,制)(造)(了)(严)(重)(的)(人)(道)(主)(义)(危)(机)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,信)(仰)(伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(的)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(开)(始)(破)(坏)(尼)(日)(尔)(三)(角)(洲)(和)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(海)(岸)(附)(近)(的)(商)(业)(活)(动)(。石)(油)(运)(输)(因)(混)(乱)(局)(势)(而)(停)(滞)(,世)(界)(油)(价)(因)(生)(产)(的)(停)(止)(而)(大)(幅)(上)(涨)(。由)(于)(无)(法)(平)(息)(暴)(力)(行)(动)(,尼)(日)(利)(亚)(要)(求)(国)(际)(援)(助)(以)(实)(现)(国)(家)(局)(势)(稳)(定)(。作)(为)(联)(合)(国)(授)(权)(的)(多)(国)(维)(和)(任)(务)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,美)(国)(在)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(东)(南)(部)(部)(署)(一)(支)(执)(行)(维)(稳)(行)(动)(和)(提)(供)(人)(道)(主)(义)(援)(助)(的)(联)(合)(部)(队)(。英)(国)(和)(法)(国)(以)(及)(来)(自)(非)(洲)(联)(盟)(的)(部)(队)(分)(别)(在)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(中)(部)(和)(北)(部)(执)(行)(任)(务)(。由)(于)(敌)(对)(组)(织)(在)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(国)(内)(的)(活)(动)(依)(然)(猖)(獗)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(建)(立)(起)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(并)(以)(此)(为)(基)(地)(执)(行)(作)(战)(任)(务)(。  在)(最)(后)(一)(个)(2020年)(态)(势)(想)(定)(假)(设)(伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(暴)(力)(活)(动)(席)(卷)(整)(个)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(。在)(该)(国)(北)(部)(和)(中)(部)(,博)(科)(圣)(地)((BokoHaram)和)(其)(他)(军)(事)(组)(织)(占)(领)(了)(大)(部)(分)(地)(区)(并)(威)(胁)(首)(都)(阿)(布)(贾)(。在)(南)(部)(,伊)(斯)(兰)(教)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(已)(经)(占)(领)(尼)(日)(尔)(河)(三)(角)(洲)(沿)(岸)(大)(部)(分)(统)(治)(力)(薄)(弱)(的)(地)(区)(,而)(且)(他)(们)(日)(渐)(频)(繁)(的)(海)(上)(活)(动)(使)(该)(国)(的)(石)(油)(工)(业)(陷)(入)(停)(顿)(。在)(此)(后)(一)(年)(,从)(未)(出)(现)(过)(的)(大)(规)(模)(暴)(力)(活)(动)(在)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(爆)(发)(,超)(过)(1百)(万)(基)(督)(教)(徒)(被)(赶)(出)(家)(园)(。由)(于)(混)(乱)(程)(度)(超)(过)(其)(控)(制)(能)(力)(,尼)(日)(利)(亚)(政)(府)(要)(求)(得)(到)(国)(际)(援)(助)(。在)(多)(个)(欧)(洲)(盟)(友)(和)(非)(洲)(联)(盟)(国)(家)(的)(参)(与)(下)(,美)(国)(向)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(东)(南)(海)(岸)(地)(区)(部)(署)(军)(事)(力)(量)(作)(为)(国)(际)(维)(和)(任)(务)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。  尼)(日)(利)(亚)(联)(合)(任)(务)(部)(队)(使)(命)(是)(实)(现)(美)(国)(政)(府)(向)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(政)(府)(提)(供)(的)(援)(助)(,结)(束)(尼)(日)(尔)(三)(角)(洲)(沿)(岸)(地)(区)(的)(暴)(力)(活)(动)(,重)(建)(法)(律)(和)(社)(会)(秩)(序)(以)(及)(支)(持)(在)(民)(事)(机)(构)(控)(制)(下)(使)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(石)(油)(输)(出)(恢)(复)(到)(冲)(突)(前)(水)(平)(。在)(美)(国)(驻)(该)(国)(大)(使)(的)(指)(导)(下)(,尼)(日)(利)(亚)(联)(合)(任)(务)(部)(队)(派)(出)(一)(支)(由)(1个)(加)(强)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(旅)(和)(海)(军)(支)(援)(力)(量)(组)(成)(的)(海)(上)(任)(务)(部)(队)(前)(往)(尼)(日)(尔)(河)(三)(角)(洲)(地)(区)(,其)(任)(务)(是)(协)(助)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(军)(事)(和)(民)(事)(当)(局)(重)(新)(夺)(回)(对)(该)(国)(石)(油)(生)(产)(至)(关)(重)(要)(的)(3个)(海)(岛)(终)(端)(和)(位)(于)(附)(近)(陆)(地)(上)(的)(相)(关)(设)(施)(,同)(时)(确)(保)(连)(接)(二)(者)(之)(间)(长)(达)(75英)(里)(水)(道)(的)(安)(全)(。由)(于)(这)(一)(地)(区)(海)(盗)(活)(动)(猖)(獗)(,远)(征)(部)(队)(无)(法)(建)(立)(一)(个)(便)(于)(开)(展)(行)(动)(的)(安)(全)(基)(地)(。  在)(这)(种)(局)(势)(下)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(必)(须)(首)(先)(占)(领)(3个)(岛)(屿)(中)(面)(积)(最)(大)(的)(一)(个)(,并)(以)(此)(为)(基)(地)(继)(续)(执)(行)(位)(于)(整)(个)(三)(角)(洲)(地)(区)(的)(后)(续)(作)(战)(任)(务)(。行)(动)(最)(初)(阶)(段)(,尼)(日)(利)(亚)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(使)(用)(自)(动)(武)(器)(、火)(箭)(弹)(和)(自)(制)(爆)(炸)(装)(置)(进)(行)(顽)(强)(抵)(抗)(,但)(几)(天)(后)(他)(们)(就)(退)(回)(到)(大)(陆)(上)(更)(加)(孤)(立)(的)(据)(点)(。海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(随)(后)(夺)(取)(了)(另)(外)(2个)(海)(岛)(终)(端)(,并)(在)(岛)(上)(建)(立)(陆)(基)(指)(挥)(部)(执)(行)(后)(续)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。海)(军)(巡)(逻)(船)(到)(达)(岛)(上)(,提)(供)(覆)(盖)(范)(围)(广)(泛)(的)(侦)(察)(行)(动)(支)(持)(,并)(且)(沿)(尼)(日)(尔)(河)(执)(行)(安)(全)(防)(护)(任)(务)(。在)(实)(时)(监)(视)(能)(力)(和)(有)(组)(织)(的)(空)(中)(力)(量)(支)(援)(下)(,位)(于)(大)(陆)(地)(区)(的)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(部)(队)(封)(锁)(了)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(的)(逃)(跑)(通)(道)(。尼)(日)(利)(亚)(联)(合)(任)(务)(部)(队)(随)(后)(在)(整)(个)(三)(角)(洲)(地)(区)(部)(署)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(旅)(并)(且)(进)(入)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(大)(陆)(地)(区)(清)(剿)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(的)(主)(要)(据)(点)(。经)(过)(3个)(星)(期)(的)(战)(斗)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(摧)(毁)(了)(数)(十)(条)(中)(型)(海)(盗)(船)(,占)(领)(了)(2座)(被)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(占)(据)(并)(建)(设)(为)(指)(挥)(基)(地)(的)(城)(镇)(,缴)(获)(了)(大)(批)(武)(器)(装)(备)(并)(逮)(捕)(了)(数)(百)(名)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(成)(员)(。此)(时)(,行)(动)(的)(重)(心)(开)(始)(向)(更)(加)(传)(统)(的)(维)(和)(任)(务)(转)(变)(,尼)(日)(利)(亚)(联)(合)(任)(务)(部)(队)(向)(受)(到)(影)(响)(的)(民)(众)(输)(送)(食)(品)(、药)(品)(和)(其)(他)(补)(给)(物)(资)(。6个)(月)(以)(后)(,美)(国)(将)(地)(区)(控)(制)(权)(交)(还)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(政)(府)(并)(结)(束)(整)(个)(行)(动)(。  美)(国)(参)(与)(此)(类)(维)(稳)(行)(动)(将)(需)(要)(联)(合)(部)(队)(通)(过)(两)(栖)(和)(机)(降)(空)(中)(突)(袭)(方)(式)(实)(施)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(,在)(遭)(到)(武)(装)(抵)(抗)(的)(条)(件)(下)(夺)(取)(并)(控)(制)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(。在)(后)(续)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(,滩)(头)(阵)(地)(将)(被)(作)(为)(基)(地)(为)(清)(除)(地)(区)(海)(盗)(组)(织)(或)(其)(他)(军)(事)(集)(团)(的)(行)(动)(提)(供)(支)(持)(。此)(类)(任)(务)(的)(成)(功)(执)(行)(需)(要)(联)(合)(部)(队)(有)(能)(力)(实)(施)(突)(然)(袭)(击)(、压)(制)(敌)(对)(武)(装)(并)(且)(随)(后)(扩)(大)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(从)(而)(为)(肃)(清)(尼)(日)(河)(三)(角)(洲)(地)(区)(海)(盗)(武)(装)(,重)(建)(尼)(日)(利)(亚)(政)(府)(控)(制)(权)(的)(决)(定)(性)(作)(战)(行)(动)(创)(造)(条)(件)(。  在)(此)(类)(军)(事)(行)(动)(中)(取)(胜)(的)(关)(键)(军)(事)(能)(力)(包)(括)(:高)(效)(的)(人)(力)(情)(报)(资)(源)(、机)(动)(指)(挥)(和)(控)(制)(、海)(上)(安)(全)(巡)(逻)(以)(及)(两)(栖)(登)(陆)(行)(动)(。联)(合)(部)(队)(可)(能)(还)(需)(要)(空)(中)(投)(送)(的)(火)(力)(支)(持)(和)(灵)(活)(的)(后)(勤)(保)(障)(体)(系)(,后)(者)(能)(够)(在)(远)(超)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(军)(建)(制)(内)(维)(持)(能)(力)(的)(时)(间)(周)(期)(内)(,通)(过)(海)(上)(通)(道)(实)(施)(作)(战)(行)(动)(保)(障)(。此)(外)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(还)(需)(要)(清)(楚)(明)(确)(的)(交)(战)(规)(则)(,其)(既)(能)(赋)(予)(作)(战)(指)(挥)(官)(完)(成)(任)(务)(的)(灵)(活)(性)(,又)(能)(使)(行)(动)(与)(可)(能)(影)(响)(到)(任)(务)(执)(行)(的)(政)(治)(、法)(律)(、作)(战)(和)(外)(交)(因)(素)(保)(持)(一)(致)(。最)(后)(,此)(类)(联)(合)(部)(队)(还)(需)(要)(有)(能)(力)(通)(过)(海)(上)(通)(道)(增)(援)(靠)(前)(部)(署)(初)(始)(进)(入)(作)(战)(力)(量)(、输)(送)(救)(援)(物)(资)(从)(而)(在)(当)(地)(民)(众)(中)(制)(造)(影)(响)(并)(为)(其)(提)(供)(安)(全)(环)(境)(保)(障)(以)(及)(处)(理)(缴)(获)(的)(敌)(武)(器)(装)(备)(等)(等)(。如)(果)(不)(具)(备)(这)(些)(能)(力)(,美)(国)(可)(能)(会)(失)(去)(按)(照)(其)(利)(益)(要)(求)(影)(响)(事)(态)(发)(展)(的)(能)(力)(,无)(法)(有)(效)(对)(世)(界)(重)(要)(地)(区)(的)(稳)(定)(局)(势)(做)(出)(贡)(献)(。  总)(结)(  上)(述)(作)(战)(态)(势)(想)(定)(呈)(现)(出)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(为)(完)(成)(任)(务)(必)(须)(实)(施)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(可)(能)(局)(势)(。尽)(管)(在)(范)(围)(和)(强)(度)(上)(存)(在)(显)(著)(区)(别)(,每)(种)(局)(势)(都)(要)(求)(联)(合)(部)(队)(有)(能)(力)(在)(遭)(遇)(某)(种)(形)(式)(的)(武)(装)(抵)(抗)(情)(况)(下)(夺)(取)(并)(占)(据)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(。如)(果)(这)(种)(能)(力)(缺)(失)(或)(者)(在)(某)(种)(程)(度)(上)(存)(在)(不)(足)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(就)(无)(法)(向)(决)(策)(者)(提)(供)(实)(现)(美)(国)(未)(来)(外)(交)(政)(策)(目)(标)(的)(可)(能)(和)(可)(行)(选)(项)(,或)(者)(必)(须)(在)(不)(可)(承)(受)(的)(风)(险)(级)(别)(上)(实)(施)(行)(动)(。实)(事)(求)(是)(地)(说)(,上)(述)(态)(势)(想)(定)(都)(没)(有)(预)(想)(美)(国)(与)(诸)(如)(俄)(罗)(斯)(或)(中)(国)(等)(真)(正)(强)(大)(的)(对)(手)(发)(生)(冲)(突)(的)(情)(况)(。事)(实)(上)(,全)(部)(4个)(态)(势)(想)(定)(都)(是)(在)(战)(略)(利)(益)(重)(要)(性)(相)(对)(不)(是)(最)(关)(键)(的)(地)(区)(,针)(对)(中)(等)(规)(模)(的)(第)(三)(世)(界)(对)(手)(的)(有)(限)(冲)(突)(。此)(外)(,在)(大)(部)(分)(假)(定)(局)(势)(中)((除)(朝)(鲜)(实)(例)(外)(),美)(国)(的)(最)(高)(目)(标)(只)(是)(保)(持)(或)(重)(置)(当)(前)(状)(态)(。然)(而)(,在)(国)(家)(存)(亡)(真)(正)(面)(临)(考)(验)(的)(严)(重)(冲)(突)(中)(,美)(国)(政)(策)(当)(然)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(确)(保)(不)(输)(掉)(战)(争)(,而)(是)(需)(要)(军)(事)(力)(量)(能)(够)(取)(得)(决)(定)(性)(的)(胜)(利)(。在)(这)(种)(冲)(突)(中)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(可)(能)(会)(需)(要)(具)(备)(相)(比)(上)(述)(态)(势)(想)(定)(大)(幅)(提)(高)(的)(规)(模)(和)(能)(力)(。此)(外)(,美)(国)(还)(可)(能)(会)(被)(迫)(认)(识)(到)(通)(过)(防)(区)(外)(精)(确)(打)(击)(手)(段)(,利)(用)(便)(捷)(的)(政)(治)(权)(宜)(之)(计)(方)(式)(发)(动)(战)(争)(并)(不)(能)(确)(保)(国)(家)(的)(生)(存)(。只)(有)(在)(这)(种)(局)(势)(下)(,健)(壮)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(才)(能)(充)(分)(展)(现)(其)(优)(势)(。在)(真)(正)(理)(解)(这)(一)(点)(,我)(们)(现)(有)(有)(必)(要)(检)(验)(联)(合)(部)(队)(当)(前)(和)(规)(划)(建)(设)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,并)(将)(二)(者)(与)(未)(来)(需)(求)(进)(行)(对)(比)(。  第)(4章)(:规)(划)(能)(力)(及)(其)(差)(距)(  “今)(天)(,我)(们)(要)(建)(设)(和)(发)(展)(满)(足)(2020年)(美)(国)(需)(求)(的)(联)(合)(部)(队)(,保)(持)(美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(的)(领)(导)(能)(力)(、训)(练)(水)(平)(和)(装)(备)(质)(量)(处)(于)(最)(佳)(状)(态)(是)(不)(容)(质)(疑)(的)(紧)(迫)(任)(务)(。而)(且)(在)(财)(政)(紧)(缩)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,我)(们)(的)(工)(作)(将)(面)(临)(更)(多)(困)(境)(,在)(结)(束)(为)(期)(10年)(的)(战)(争)(后)(,我)(们)(必)(须)(有)(选)(择)(性)(地)(重)(建)(联)(合)(部)(队)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,精)(简)(规)(模)(以)(保)(持)(强)(大)(。更)(加)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(必)(须)(进)(一)(步)(增)(强)(联)(合)(程)(度)(,提)(高)(相)(互)(依)(靠)(程)(度)(并)(整)(合)(新)(型)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。我)(确)(信)(美)(国)(能)(够)(以)(可)(承)(受)(的)(成)(本)(代)(价)(重)(新)(形)(成)(适)(应)(性)(强)(的)(军)(事)(力)(量)(。我)(决)(心)(必)(须)(建)(成)(一)(支)(具)(备)(积)(极)(响)(应)(能)(力)(,能)(够)(成)(为)(国)(家)(保)(留)(足)(够)(选)(项)(的)(联)(合)(部)(队)(。”  ——马)(丁)(邓)(普)(西)(《参)(联)(会)(主)(席)(对)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(战)(略)(指)(导)(》  我)(们)(当)(前)(很)(难)(精)(确)(规)(划)(未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(规)(模)(和)(组)(成)(。由)(于)(存)(在)(大)(量)(政)(治)(和)(经)(济)(变)(数)(,即)(使)(《未)(来)(国)(防)(项)(目)(》(FutureYearsDefenseProgram)中)(的)(一)(些)(关)(于)(资)(源)(分)(配)(的)(基)(本)(假)(设)(可)(能)(也)(存)(在)(疑)(问)(。但)(关)(于)(国)(防)(预)(算)(及)(其)(相)(关)(项)(目)(在)(未)(来)(7年)(的)(可)(能)(发)(展)(方)(向)(,过)(去)(经)(验)(可)(以)(提)(供)(一)(些)(启)(示)(。下)(图)(显)(示)(了)(过)(去)(65年)(间)(国)(防)(开)(支)(的)(历)(史)(趋)(势)(,其)(中)(一)(个)(明)(显)(事)(实)(是)(在)(此)(前)(3次)(重)(大)(冲)(突)(后)(的)(7年)(中)(,国)(防)(开)(支)(平)(均)(下)(降)(33%。  尽)(管)(每)(次)(下)(降)(都)(是)(由)(各)(种)(独)(特)(政)(治)(、经)(济)(和)(战)(略)(因)(素)(共)(同)(作)(用)(的)(结)(果)(,但)(这)(种)(模)(式)(预)(示)(着)(在)(未)(来)(7年)(中)(国)(防)(开)(支)(也)(会)(进)(行)(同)(等)(规)(模)(的)(削)(减)(。尽)(管)(“强)(制)(分)(段)(减)(支)(”(sequestration)的)(授)(权)(内)(容)(非)(常)(夸)(张)(,这)(种)(削)(减)(实)(际)(也)(会)(也)(历)(史)(惯)(例)(保)(持)(基)(本)(一)(致)(。事)(实)(上)(,即)(使)(在)(许)(多)(人)(形)(容)(为)(灾)(难)(的)(局)(势)(下)(,国)(防)(经)(费)(也)(会)(保)(持)(甚)(至)(高)(于)(其)(历)(史)(长)(期)(平)(均)(线)(。正)(如)(布)(鲁)(克)(林)(研)(究)(所)((theBrookingsInstitution)的)(彼)(得)(辛)(格)((PeterSinger)近)(期)(发)(表)(的)(观)(点)(,即)(使)(在)(今)(天)(讨)(论)(的)(最)(坏)(的)(局)(势)(下)(,“国)(防)(开)(支)(也)(不)(会)(下)(探)(到)(历)(史)(曲)(线)(波)(谷)(的)(底)(部)(,而)(是)(处)(于)(或)(高)(于)(整)(体)(平)(均)(水)(平)(。”本)(文)(讨)(论)(的)(主)(要)(问)(题)(是)(国)(防)(经)(费)(缩)(减)(对)(联)(合)(部)(队)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(将)(产)(生)(哪)(些)(冲)(击)(。  1.天)(空)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(域)(  对)(于)(天)(空)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(域)(,这)(种)(削)(减)(可)(能)(意)(味)(着)(减)(少)(或)(取)(消)(部)(分)(采)(办)(项)(目)(,甚)(至)(影)(响)(到)(诸)(如)(F-35等)(主)(要)(战)(斗)(系)(统)(。但)(由)(于)(当)(前)(国)(防)(部)(对)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”概)(念)(的)(强)(调)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(在)(此)(两)(种)(作)(战)(域)(中)(积)(聚)(的)(主)(要)(能)(力)(处)(于)(在)(即)(将)(到)(来)(的)(政)(治)(和)(经)(济)(角)(逐)(中)(免)(受)(影)(响)(的)(有)(利)(态)(势)(。美)(国)(海)(军)(当)(前)(现)(役)(的)(11个)(航)(空)(母)(舰)(打)(击)(群)(可)(能)(裁)(减)(1到)(2个)(,但)(基)(于)(航)(母)(平)(台)(的)(作)(战)(力)(量)(无)(疑)(还)(将)(位)(于)(美)(国)(海)(洋)(战)(略)(的)(中)(心)(位)(置)(。两)(栖)(舰)(艇)(及)(其)(相)(关)(的)(登)(陆)(和)(支)(援)(保)(障)(船)(只)(最)(有)(可)(能)(遭)(到)(大)(幅)(裁)(撤)(。潜)(艇)(部)(队)(可)(能)(会)(不)(得)(不)(推)(迟)(新)(一)(级)(潜)(艇)(的)(生)(产)(,但)(是)(海)(军)(能)(够)(升)(级)(现)(有)(潜)(艇)(部)(队)(并)(保)(持)(大)(部)(分)(甚)(至)(全)(部)(水)(下)(作)(战)(部)(队)(结)(构)(和)(能)(力)(。反)(潜)(和)(扫)(雷)(能)(力)(还)(有)(可)(能)(得)(到)(一)(定)(程)(度)(提)(高)(,从)(而)(为)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”的)(作)(战)(需)(求)(提)(供)(支)(持)(,同)(样)(道)(理)(海)(军)(巡)(航)(导)(弹)(能)(力)(也)(进)(一)(步)(发)(展)(。“宙)(斯)(盾)(”(AEGIS)弹)(道)(导)(弹)(防)(御)(系)(统)(和)(潜)(基)(战)(略)(核)(部)(队)(同)(样)(会)(保)(持)(全)(部)(作)(战)(力)(量)(,形)(成)(高)(效)(核)(威)(慑)(能)(力)(。  在)(这)(些)(领)(域)(中)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(大)(幅)(下)(降)(必)(然)(会)(对)(联)(合)(部)(队)(确)(保)(全)(球)(空)(中)(和)(海)(上)(交)(通)(线)(以)(及)(战)(略)(意)(义)(重)(要)(地)(区)(安)(全)(的)(能)(力)(造)(成)(严)(重)(影)(响)(,其)(还)(将)(限)(制)(联)(合)(部)(队)(向)(危)(机)(爆)(发)(地)(区)(迅)(速)(投)(射)(并)(长)(期)(维)(持)(这)(种)(力)(量)(的)(能)(力)(。作)(为)(任)(何)(成)(功)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(先)(决)(条)(件)(,这)(些)(能)(力)(必)(须)(得)(到)(保)(持)(。事)(实)(上)(,巧)(妙)(地)(运)(用)(海)(上)(威)(慑)(或)(力)(量)(投)(射)(手)(段)(甚)(至)(有)(可)(能)(在)(有)(些)(情)(况)(下)(避)(免)(发)(动)(必)(要)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,但)(是)(对)(于)(这)(种)(结)(果)(的)(依)(赖)(可)(能)(导)(致)(国)(家)(面)(临)(不)(可)(承)(受)(的)(风)(险)(,特)(别)(是)(在)(资)(源)(紧)(张)(的)(大)(气)(候)(下)(。  美)(国)(空)(军)(可)(能)(会)(被)(迫)(将)(现)(役)(航)(空)(联)(队)(数)(量)(大)(幅)(消)(减)(10-15%,但)(仍)(有)(可)(能)(保)(存)(大)(部)(分)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,包)(括)(有)(人)(驾)(驶)(战)(斗)(机)(和)(轰)(炸)(机)(以)(及)(空)(基)(侦)(察)(和)(监)(视)(系)(统)(等)(。可)(能)(的)(削)(减)(目)(标)(包)(括)(“核)(三)(角)(”中)(的)(洲)(际)(弹)(道)(导)(弹)(系)(统)(、战)(略)(空)(运)(能)(力)(、近)(距)(空)(中)(支)(援)(能)(力)(以)(及)(航)(空)(远)(征)(联)(队)(等)(。然)(而)(在)(空)(中)(作)(战)(域)(中)(,空)(中)(运)(输)(和)(近)(距)(火)(力)(支)(援)(是)(支)(持)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(最)(为)(重)(要)(的)(能)(力)(。尽)(管)(空)(军)(不)(应)(该)(使)(夺)(取)(空)(中)(优)(势)(的)(战)(斗)(能)(力)(在)(经)(历)(削)(减)(后)(承)(受)(风)(险)(,但)(其)(也)(绝)(对)(不)(能)(忽)(视)(其)(在)(运)(输)(和)(支)(援)(地)(面)(作)(战)(力)(量)(中)(的)(关)(键)(作)(用)(,尤)(其)(是)(对)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。事)(实)(上)(从)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(观)(点)(出)(发)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(对)(于)(联)(合)(作)(战)(环)(境)(力)(量)(投)(射)(的)(短)(板)(就)(在)(于)(战)(略)(空)(中)(运)(输)(。任)(何)(空)(运)(能)(力)(的)(不)(足)(都)(将)(延)(缓)(地)(面)(部)(队)(到)(达)(时)(间)(,从)(而)(使)(失)(去)(作)(战)(主)(动)(权)(的)(风)(险)(大)(幅)(上)(升)(。空)(军)(可)(能)(扩)(大)(的)(领)(域)(包)(括)(能)(够)(提)(供)(过)(顶)(监)(视)(和)(打)(击)(能)(力)(的)(无)(人)(机)(系)(统)(,诸)(如)(MQ-1“捕)(食)(者)(”和)(MQ-9“死)(神)(”无)(人)(机)(等)(。  2.地)(面)(作)(战)(域)(  如)(果)(当)(前)(国)(防)(重)(点)(趋)(势)(继)(续)(保)(持)(下)(去)(,国)(防)(开)(支)(的)(削)(减)(将)(给)(地)(面)(域)(作)(战)(能)(力)(带)(来)(冲)(击)(也)(许)(最)(为)(严)(重)(。关)(于)(如)(何)(削)(减)(开)(支)(问)(题)(,陆)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(结)(构)(是)(得)(到)(最)(多)(的)(讨)(论)(的)(议)(题)(。近)(期)(很)(多)(公)(开)(的)(建)(议)(都)(暗)(示)(现)(役)(陆)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(员)(额)(将)(裁)(减)(40-50%,主)(要)(作)(战)(能)(力)(转)(移)(到)(预)(备)(役)(部)(队)(从)(而)(节)(省)(足)(够)(经)(费)(使)(国)(防)(部)(能)(够)(推)(进)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”战)(略)(建)(设)(。这)(种)(规)(模)(的)(削)(减)(意)(味)(着)(陆)(军)(将)(轻)(易)(失)(去)(约)(1/2空)(降)(兵)(部)(队)(,接)(受)(空)(中)(突)(击)(行)(动)(训)(练)(的)(陆)(军)(部)(队)(以)(及)(运)(输)(和)(支)(援)(其)(作)(战)(的)(旋)(转)(翼)(飞)(机)(平)(台)(也)(将)(面)(临)(同)(样)(的)(处)(境)(,作)(战)(支)(援)(和)(保)(障)(部)(队)(也)(不)(得)(不)(接)(受)(大)(幅)(削)(减)(。海)(外)(基)(地)(和)(轮)(换)(靠)(前)(部)(署)(部)(队)(的)(进)(一)(步)(下)(降)(低)(将)(使)(介)(入)(和)(进)(入)(行)(动)(面)(临)(更)(加)(恶)(化)(的)(局)(面)(,因)(为)(这)(将)(导)(致)(某)(些)(美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(必)(须)(依)(靠)(的)(重)(要)(中)(转)(集)(结)(基)(地)((intermediatestagingbases)被)(关)(闭)(。  对)(于)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(,这)(种)(规)(模)(的)(削)(减)(很)(容)(易)(会)(导)(致)(2.5个)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(旅)(的)(发)(展)(目)(标)(锐)(减)(到)(1.5个)(。这)(意)(味)(着)(当)(两)(场)(以)(上)(危)(机)(同)(时)(在)(海)(洋)(或)(海)(岸)(地)(区)(爆)(发)(时)(,美)(军)(的)(应)(对)(方)(案)(中)(将)(缺)(少)(任)(何)(有)(效)(的)(地)(面)(作)(战)(元)(素)(。海)(军)(航)(空)(联)(队)(也)(将)(遭)(到)(严)(重)(削)(弱)(,尤)(其)(对)(于)(V-22“鱼)(鹰)(”和)(CH-53“海)(上)(种)(马)(”项)(目)(。如)(果)(这)(种)(方)(案)(最)(终)(成)(为)(现)(实)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(执)(行)(未)(来)(局)(势)(可)(能)(所)(需)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(将)(面)(临)(极)(其)(严)(峻)(的)(威)(胁)(。正)(如)(一)(位)(国)(防)(专)(家)(近)(期)(所)(述)(,“如)(果)(导)(致)(运)(用)(大)(量)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(或)(陆)(军)(实)(施)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(未)(来)(需)(求)(被)(低)(估)(,未)(来)(决)(策)(者)(所)(掌)(握)(的)(选)(项)(将)(大)(量)(减)(少)(。对)(于)(支)(撑)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(基)(础)(的)(联)(合)(使)(能)(力)(量)((例)(如)(两)(栖)(运)(输)(、压)(制)(敌)(防)(空)(力)(量)(、扫)(雷)(以)(及)(战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(空)(运)(能)(力)(等)()整)(体)(的)(细)(致)(分)(析)(规)(划)(,这)(种)(预)(期)(同)(样)(适)(用)(”。如)(果)(地)(面)(作)(战)(力)(量)(结)(构)(正)(如)(一)(些)(人)(预)(想)(的)(那)(样)(进)(行)(大)(幅)(裁)(减)(,美)(国)(未)(来)(夺)(取)(关)(键)(地)(区)(介)(入)(通)(道)(的)(企)(图)(可)(能)(只)(能)(依)(靠)(空)(中)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(部)(队)(,但)(当)(到)(达)(这)(些)(地)(区)(后)(,其)(所)(能)(实)(现)(的)(目)(标)(将)(极)(其)(有)(限)(。简)(言)(之)(,美)(国)(可)(能)(会)(失)(去)(打)(赢)(“另)(一)(半)(战)(争)(”的)(能)(力)(。如)(果)(考)(虑)(到)(许)(多)(亲)(密)(盟)(友)(已)(经)(将)(其)(军)(事)(力)(量)(削)(减)(至)(不)(再)(能)(够)(独)(立)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(,必)(须)(依)(靠)(美)(国)(提)(供)(此)(类)(能)(力)(的)(程)(度)(,美)(国)(保)(持)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(的)(必)(要)(性)(则)(变)(得)(更)(加)(明)(显)(。  即)(使)(在)(当)(前)(组)(织)(结)(构)(下)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(地)(面)(元)(素)(也)(存)(在)(严)(重)(的)(能)(力)(缺)(陷)(。首)(先)(也)(是)(最)(重)(要)(的)(是)(其)(生)(存)(性)(较)(弱)(,尤)(其)(在)(与)(拥)(有)(较)(强)(装)(甲)(力)(量)(的)(混)(合)(型)(敌)(人)(或)(国)(家)(作)(战)(的)(情)(况)(下)(。尽)(管)(空)(中)(力)(量)(是)(打)(击)(坚)(固)(地)(面)(威)(胁)(系)(统)(的)(有)(效)(手)(段)(,但)(很)(明)(显)(在)(缺)(乏)(地)(面)(部)(队)(的)(支)(援)(下)(,其)(难)(以)(占)(领)(并)(固)(守)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(。此)(外)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(还)(需)(要)(更)(强)(的)(机)(动)(力)(和)(火)(力)(以)(及)(相)(对)(得)(到)(改)(进)(的)(防)(护)(力)(和)(火)(力)(支)(援)(力)(量)(才)(能)(更)(加)(高)(效)(地)(执)(行)(作)(战)(任)(务)(。大)(量)(分)(析)(表)(明)(这)(种)(力)(量)(改)(进)(是)(提)(高)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(未)(来)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(最)(佳)(方)(式)(。如)(果)(缺)(乏)(此)(类)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(必)(将)(面)(临)(到)(达)(即)(陷)(入)(困)(境)(的)(风)(险)(。美)(军)(当)(前)(所)(需)(的)(是)(一)(种)(在)(强)(行)(进)(入)(行)(动)(中)(运)(用)(地)(面)(部)(队)(的)(全)(新)(作)(战)(概)(念)(,使)(其)(能)(够)(规)(避)(敌)(人)(不)(断)(增)(强)(的)(打)(击)(能)(力)(同)(时)(在)(战)(役)(和)(战)(略)(层)(面)(引)(入)(更)(强)(的)(机)(动)(性)(。  3.太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(作)(战)(域)(  在)(太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(作)(战)(域)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(作)(战)(能)(力)(将)(得)(到)(不)(断)(增)(强)(和)(扩)(展)(,尤)(其)(是)(网)(络)(空)(间)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。美)(国)(军)(队)(对)(于)(基)(于)(太)(空)(卫)(星)(的)(图)(像)(和)(电)(子)(情)(报)(、导)(航)(和)(授)(时)(信)(息)(以)(及)(全)(球)(通)(信)(能)(力)(依)(赖)(程)(度)(越)(来)(越)(高)(。此)(外)(,大)(量)(精)(确)(制)(导)(弹)(药)(和)(无)(人)(机)(依)(靠)(卫)(星)(提)(供)(本)(地)(数)(据)(。在)(可)(预)(见)(的)(将)(来)(,这)(种)(依)(赖)(关)(系)(还)(将)(持)(续)(存)(在)(。事)(实)(上)(,美)(国)(对)(于)(这)(些)(技)(术)(的)(高)(度)(依)(赖)(使)(其)(成)(为)(敌)(人)(未)(来)(最)(有)(可)(能)(袭)(击)(的)(重)(点)(目)(标)(。在)(过)(去)(数)(年)(中)(,敌)(人)(一)(直)(在)(发)(展)(和)(改)(进)(运)(用)(计)(算)(机)(和)(电)(子)(手)(段)(影)(响)(、破)(坏)(或)(摧)(毁)(美)(国)(本)(土)(和)(海)(外)(作)(战)(地)(区)(指)(挥)(控)(制)(系)(统)(的)(技)(术)(。美)(国)(高)(级)(防)(务)(官)(员)(已)(经)(认)(识)(到)(这)(些)(薄)(弱)(环)(节)(并)(开)(始)(投)(入)(大)(量)(资)(源)(对)(其)(进)(行)(保)(护)(。此)(外)(,多)(个)(利)(用)(太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(技)(术)(在)(联)(合)(部)(队)(整)(体)(范)(围)(内)(改)(进)(情)(报)(处)(理)(、利)(用)(和)(分)(发)((processing,exploitation,anddissemination)程)(序)(的)(项)(目)(也)(已)(经)(开)(始)(实)(施)(。  这)(些)(能)(力)(都)(是)(确)(保)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(的)(重)(要)(因)(素)(,因)(为)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(开)(始)(前)(在)(太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(作)(战)(域)(的)(准)(备)(越)(充)(分)(,任)(务)(的)(成)(功)(机)(率)(就)(越)(高)(。然)(而)(,许)(多)(亟)(待)(填)(补)(的)(能)(力)(缺)(陷)(依)(然)(存)(在)(。首)(先)(,进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(仍)(然)(需)(要)(改)(进)(能)(够)(确)(保)(在)(运)(动)(中)(实)(施)(高)(效)(任)(务)(指)(挥)(的)(通)(信)(系)(统)(,尤)(其)(是)(空)(降)(平)(台)(。当)(前)(系)(统)(的)(动)(中)(效)(能)(只)(能)(实)(现)(非)(常)(有)(限)(的)(态)(势)(感)(知)(,而)(且)(不)(能)(延)(伸)(至)(营)(以)(下)(的)(作)(战)(编)(队)(。此)(外)(,由)(于)(功)(能)(最)(强)(系)(统)(通)(常)(不)(适)(于)(在)(登)(陆)(或)(空)(降)(行)(动)(使)(用)(,改)(进)(上)(述)(建)(立)(通)(信)(链)(路)(的)(能)(力)(可)(能)(需)(要)(消)(耗)(比)(当)(前)(情)(况)(更)(多)(的)(时)(间)(和)(资)(源)(。如)(果)(得)(到)(恰)(当)(的)(强)(调)(,其)(他)(系)(统)(能)(够)(帮)(助)(未)(来)(部)(队)(主)(导)(甚)(至)(控)(制)(太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(作)(战)(域)(的)(行)(动)(,并)(对)(其)(物)(理)(作)(战)(域)(内)(的)(行)(动)(提)(供)(支)(援)(。运)(用)(太)(空)(和)(网)(络)(空)(间)(能)(力)(,强)(化)(在)(各)(自)(作)(战)(域)(内)(“机)(动)(性)(”并)(对)(敌)(方)(网)(络)(进)(行)(渗)(透)(从)(而)(对)(地)(面)(、海)(洋)(和)(空)(中)(等)(物)(理)(作)(战)(域)(内)(的)(机)(动)(行)(动)(提)(供)(支)(援)(的)(观)(点)(已)(经)(在)(《联)(合)(作)(战)(介)(入)(概)(念)(》中)(得)(到)(明)(确)(的)(强)(调)(,但)(是)(其)(只)(有)(在)(恰)(当)(资)(源)(保)(障)(的)(情)(况)(下)(才)(能)(转)(变)(为)(现)(实)(。  在)(被)(迫)(于)(太)(空)(或)(网)(络)(空)(间)(作)(战)(域)(内)(采)(取)(强)(力)(措)(施)(之)(前)(,美)(国)(需)(要)(发)(展)(更)(加)(高)(效)(的)(网)(络)(攻)(击)(能)(力)(,确)(保)(美)(军)(能)(够)(在)(敌)(方)(系)(统)(中)(造)(成)(混)(乱)(同)(时)(保)(护)(盟)(友)(系)(统)(。而)(且)(美)(国)(还)(不)(应)(该)(羞)(于)(使)(用)(使)(外)(太)(空)(“武)(器)(化)(”的)(概)(念)(。在)(该)(领)(域)(美)(国)(依)(然)(占)(据)(较)(大)(优)(势)(,迈)(出)(“武)(器)(化)(”的)(步)(伐)(将)(帮)(助)(美)(国)(在)(未)(来)(多)(年)(里)(保)(持)(统)(治)(地)(位)(。  4.特)(种)(部)(队)(  唯)(一)(与)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(相)(关)(而)(又)(不)(会)(受)(到)(当)(前)(国)(防)(重)(点)(严)(重)(影)(响)(的)(领)(域)(可)(能)(就)(是)(特)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。当)(前)(军)(事)(战)(略)(宣)(称)(美)(国)(将)(继)(续)(扩)(大)(和)(改)(进)(特)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,并)(会)(在)(类)(型)(广)(泛)(的)(任)(务)(中)(依)(靠)(这)(种)(作)(战)(方)(式)(。在)(未)(来)(7年)(中)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(预)(计)(将)(继)(续)(保)(持)(增)(长)(并)(通)(过)(接)(触)(、训)(练)(和)(顾)(问)(任)(务)(以)(及)(外)(国)(内)(部)(防)(御)(行)(动)(成)(为)(美)(国)(塑)(造)(安)(全)(环)(境)(努)(力)(的)(关)(键)(组)(成)(部)(分)(。更)(加)(与)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(直)(接)(相)(关)(的)(是)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(将)(持)(续)(发)(展)(直)(接)(作)(战)(、战)(略)(突)(袭)(以)(及)(反)(恐)(作)(战)(行)(动)(能)(力)(。尽)(管)(这)(些)(作)(战)(行)(动)(属)(于)(某)(种)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(类)(型)(,但)(其)(将)(继)(续)(保)(持)(相)(对)(较)(小)(的)(规)(模)(。为)(了)(给)(常)(规)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(提)(供)(支)(持)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(需)(要)(继)(续)(发)(挥)(特)(种)(侦)(察)(以)(及)(引)(导)(常)(规)(火)(力)(打)(击)(战)(略)(目)(标)(等)(重)(要)(功)(能)(。  诸)(如)(关)(于)(巴)(基)(斯)(坦)(想)(定)(所)(涉)(及)(的)(更)(大)(规)(模)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,特)(种)(部)(队)(可)(能)(需)(要)(常)(规)(部)(队)(提)(供)(大)(量)(加)(强)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,潜)(在)(的)(能)(力)(缺)(陷)(存)(在)(于)(训)(练)(方)(面)(。如)(果)(常)(规)(部)(队)(和)(特)(种)(部)(队)(现)(在)(并)(不)(能)(采)(取)(必)(要)(的)(强)(制)(机)(制)(促)(使)(其)(朝)(着)(更)(大)(互)(相)(依)(靠)(和)(相)(互)(支)(持)(能)(力)(发)(展)(,他)(们)(可)(能)(会)(倒)(退)(回)(各)(自)(组)(织)(机)(构)(的)(“默)(认)(设)(置)(”并)(丧)(失)(当)(前)(已)(经)(建)(立)(起)(来)(的)(合)(作)(和)(互)(相)(依)(靠)(能)(力)(。此)(外)(为)(迅)(速)(执)(行)(某)(种)(类)(型)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,他)(们)(可)(能)(还)(会)(缺)(乏)(必)(要)(的)(相)(关)(训)(练)(。然)(而)(,高)(级)(领)(导)(人)(的)(适)(度)(强)(调)(可)(能)(会)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(避)(免)(这)(种)(结)(果)(的)(产)(生)(。  5.总)(结)(  当)(前)(国)(防)(重)(点)(和)(资)(源)(投)(放)(方)(式)(可)(能)(会)(解)(释)(许)(多)(关)(于)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(更)(加)(重)(要)(的)(需)(求)(。如)(果)(得)(不)(到)(某)(些)(重)(要)(调)(整)(,这)(些)(战)(略)(重)(点)(可)(能)(会)(形)(成)(若)(干)(联)(合)(部)(队)(为)(取)(得)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(胜)(利)(所)(必)(须)(努)(力)(弥)(补)(的)(能)(力)(缺)(陷)(。其)(中)(,最)(为)(显)(著)(的)(不)(足)(可)(能)(就)(是)(对)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(依)(然)(属)(于)(未)(来)(需)(求)(内)(容)(的)(认)(知)(。就)(在)(数)(年)(以)(前)(,陆)(军)(退)(役)(将)(军)(卡)(尔)(斯)(廷)(纳)((CarlStiner)曾)(指)(出)(,自)(2001年)(以)(来)(《四)(年)(防)(务)(评)(估)(报)(告)(》就)(未)(再)(提)(及)(关)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(内)(容)(。《联)(合)(战)(略)(能)(力)(计)(划)(》(JointStrategicCapabilitiesPlan)最)(后)(一)(次)(将)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(作)(为)(能)(力)(需)(求)(是)(在)(2002年)(。直)(到)(最)(近)(,“全)(球)(响)(应)(部)(队)(”(GlobalResponseForce)行)(政)(命)(令)(才)(提)(到)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(、训)(练)(和)(演)(习)(问)(题)(,国)(防)(部)(的)(任)(何)(文)(件)(也)(未)(曾)(提)(供)(关)(于)(些)(问)(题)(进)(行)(的)(综)(合)(性)(全)(面)(表)(述)(。  “空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”近)(年)(来)(得)(到)(了)(高)(度)(强)(调)(,与)(国)(防)(能)(力)(相)(关)(的)(大)(部)(分)(学)(术)(研)(究)(能)(量)(都)(聚)(焦)(于)(夺)(取)(介)(入)(途)(径)(、交)(通)(线)(和)(准)(备)(作)(战)(问)(题)(,而)(不)(是)(在)(外)(国)(领)(土)(执)(行)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。在)(这)(种)(大)(背)(景)(下)(,参)(谋)(长)(联)(席)(会)(议)(开)(展)(的)(“十)(年)(战)(争)(”研)(究)(没)(有)(关)(注)(任)(何)(形)(式)(的)(强)(行)(作)(战)(行)(动)(就)(非)(常)(具)(有)(启)(示)(意)(义)(。这)(种)(缺)(失)(更)(加)(突)(出)(在)(过)(去)(十)(年)(中)(联)(合)(部)(队)(在)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(方)(面)(几)(乎)(没)(有)(取)(得)(任)(何)(进)(步)(的)(事)(实)(。联)(合)(部)(队)(似)(乎)(失)(去)(了)(某)(些)(其)(应)(该)(掌)(握)(的)(重)(要)(能)(力)(。在)(经)(历)(12年)(非)(常)(规)(战)(争)(以)(及)(海)(外)(义)(务)(持)(续)(扩)(展)(后)(,许)(多)(国)(防)(分)(析)(人)(士)(认)(为)(其)(理)(解)(了)(所)(谓)(新)(美)(国)(战)(争)(方)(式)(应)(该)(如)(何)(执)(行)(。然)(而)(,当)(前)(正)(在)(实)(施)(的)(武)(装)(力)(量)(规)(模)(削)(减)(正)(在)(从)(某)(些)(重)(要)(方)(面)(改)(变)(着)(这)(种)(作)(战)(方)(式)(,在)(未)(来)(数)(年)(,其)(有)(可)(能)(造)(成)(联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(克)(服)(的)(一)(系)(列)(能)(力)(缺)(陷)(。  第)(5章)(:建)(议)(  “金)(雉)(行)(动)(、紧)(急)(狂)(暴)(行)(动)(、正)(义)(事)(业)(行)(动)(、沙)(漠)(风)(暴)(行)(动)(、支)(持)(民)(主)(行)(动)(、持)(久)(自)(由)(行)(动)(和)(伊)(拉)(克)(自)(由)(行)(动)(都)(能)(够)(证)(实)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(在)(美)(军)(战)(略)(指)(导)(、作)(战)(理)(论)(、训)(练)(和)(计)(划)(中)(持)(续)(存)(在)(的)(必)(要)(性)(。没)(有)(人)(能)(够)(预)(测)(美)(国)(未)(来)(将)(在)(哪)(个)(地)(区)(采)(取)(响)(应)(行)(动)(,经)(过)(训)(练)(并)(且)(得)(到)(证)(实)(存)(在)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(是)(关)(系)(国)(家)(安)(全)(不)(容)(忽)(视)(的)(重)(要)(问)(题)(。”  ——卡)(尔)(斯)(廷)(纳)(和)(丹)(尼)(尔)(施)(罗)(德)(《陆)(军)(和)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(》  为)(确)(保)(“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”具)(备)(成)(功)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(以)(支)(持)(国)(家)(战)(略)(的)(能)(力)(,国)(防)(部)(必)(须)(对)(其)(当)(前)(发)(展)(轨)(迹)(做)(出)(调)(整)(,更)(多)(重)(视)(发)(展)(并)(维)(持)(恰)(当)(的)(能)(力)(和)(部)(队)(。为)(实)(现)(这)(个)(目)(标)(,本)(章)(提)(供)(5项)(能)(够)(帮)(助)(联)(合)(部)(队)(改)(进)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(具)(体)(建)(议)(。  1.保)(持)(制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(  制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(是)(确)(保)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(的)(重)(要)(先)(决)(因)(素)(。这)(些)(优)(势)(将)(为)(强)(行)(进)(入)(创)(造)(条)(件)(,如)(果)(无)(法)(占)(据)(这)(些)(优)(势)(,强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(将)(面)(临)(极)(度)(风)(险)(。近)(期)(发)(布)(的)(指)(导)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”概)(念)(发)(展)(的)(文)(件)(强)(调)(这)(些)(能)(力)(的)(重)(要)(性)(,不)(仅)(是)(由)(于)(其)(是)(确)(保)(介)(入)(途)(径)(的)(方)(式)(,而)(且)(其)(还)(将)(成)(为)(威)(慑)(诸)(如)(中)(国)(或)(伊)(朗)(等)(对)(手)(的)(高)(效)(手)(段)(。然)(而)(,“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”概)(念)(的)(作)(者)(暗)(示)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(在)(此)(两)(种)(作)(战)(域)(中)(不)(受)(任)(何)(挑)(战)(的)(时)(代)(可)(能)(已)(经)(接)(近)(终)(结)(。他)(们)(进)(一)(步)(承)(认)(“空)(海)(一)(体)(战)(”本)(身)(并)(不)(是)(一)(种)(赢)(得)(战)(争)(胜)(利)(的)(概)(念)(,而)(是)(一)(种)(促)(进)(塑)(造)(战)(役)(层)(条)(件)(同)(时)(威)(慑)(空)(中)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(域)(中)(出)(现)(的)(有)(违)(美)(国)(利)(益)(竞)(争)(行)(为)(的)(手)(段)(。相)(应)(地)(,该)(概)(念)(支)(持)(增)(强)(美)(国)(空)(中)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,同)(时)(采)(取)(新)(的)(抬)(高)(成)(本)(战)(略)(,诸)(如)(改)(进)(空)(中)(和)(导)(弹)(防)(御)(、网)(络)(空)(间)(-电)(子)(战)(以)(及)(提)(高)(潜)(艇)(作)(战)(能)(力)(等)(等)(。此)(外)(,该)(概)(念)(还)(认)(为)(制)(空)(权)(同)(样)(也)(会)(对)(实)(施)(高)(效)(反)(潜)(作)(战)(产)(生)(重)(要)(作)(用)(。  为)(保)(持)(制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(继)(续)(发)(展)(能)(够)(击)(败)(任)(何)(潜)(在)(对)(手)(以)(及)(先)(进)(侦)(察)(监)(视)(系)(统)(的)(第)(5代)(战)(斗)(机)(技)(术)(。此)(外)(,夺)(取)(制)(空)(权)(和)(制)(海)(权)(还)(需)(要)(改)(进)(导)(弹)(、导)(弹)(防)(御)(和)(潜)(艇)(部)(队)(能)(力)(。所)(有)(上)(述)(能)(力)(都)(是)(确)(保)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(取)(得)(胜)(利)(的)(关)(键)(因)(素)(,但)(可)(能)(最)(为)(重)(要)(的)(是)(高)(效)(利)(用)(联)(合)(火)(力)(支)(援)(到)(达)(的)(地)(面)(作)(战)(力)(量)(。相)(应)(地)(,诸)(如)(F-35和)(发)(展)(改)(进)(型)(导)(弹)(的)(项)(目)(应)(该)(继)(续)(推)(进)(,但)(其)(程)(度)(要)(控)(制)(在)(确)(保)(夺)(取)(和)(保)(持)(制)(空)(权)(同)(时)(为)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(提)(供)(关)(键)(空)(中)(支)(援)(的)(层)(面)(。  与)(夺)(取)(制)(空)(权)(紧)(密)(相)(关)(的)(需)(求)(是)(维)(持)(一)(支)(能)(够)(迅)(速)(转)(移)(必)(要)(作)(战)(力)(量)(以)(夺)(取)(、维)(持)(并)(利)(用)(地)(面)(行)(动)(主)(动)(权)(的)(固)(定)(翼)(和)(旋)(转)(翼)(运)(输)(机)(部)(队)(。在)(当)(前)(的)(国)(防)(项)(目)(中)(,战)(略)(和)(战)(役)(空)(运)(力)(量)(即)(将)(面)(临)(大)(幅)(削)(减)(,但)(为)(了)(能)(够)(在)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(中)(取)(胜)(这)(种)(情)(况)(必)(须)(得)(到)(改)(善)(。C-17和)(C-130运)(输)(机)(的)(数)(量)(必)(须)(保)(持)(在)(足)(以)(一)(次)(性)(输)(送)(一)(个)(整)(建)(制)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(及)(其)(赋)(能)(力)(量)(的)(规)(模)(。此)(外)(,各)(军)(种)(部)(队)(还)(应)(该)(维)(持)(足)(够)(V-22“鱼)(鹰)(”和)(CH-53“海)(上)(种)(马)(”直)(升)(机)(,以)(确)(保)(同)(时)(在)(2个)(不)(同)(战)(区)(各)(自)(插)(入)(2支)(营)(级)(规)(模)(部)(队)(。最)(终)(,国)(防)(部)(还)(应)(该)(继)(续)(寻)(求)(发)(展)(“联)(合)(未)(来)(战)(区)(空)(运)(”飞)(机)(项)(目)(,使)(其)(有)(能)(力)(在)(未)(经)(恢)(复)(或)(临)(时)(机)(场)(起)(飞)(或)(降)(落)(。这)(种)(能)(力)(将)(使)(美)(国)(军)(队)(能)(够)(登)(陆)(的)(地)(区)(发)(生)(数)(量)(级)(的)(增)(长)(,同)(时)(使)(联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(在)(这)(些)(地)(区)(获)(得)(巨)(大)(战)(术)(和)(战)(役)(优)(势)(,而)(不)(仅)(仅)(局)(限)(于)(基)(础)(设)(施)(防)(御)(能)(力)(强)(的)(地)(区)(。  2.建)(立)(空)(中)(部)(署)(打)(击)(部)(队)(  对)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(所)(应)(做)(出)(的)(最)(大)(改)(变)(是)(发)(展)(执)(行)(此)(类)(任)(务)(部)(队)(的)(组)(织)(结)(构)(和)(装)(备)(,使)(其)(具)(备)(在)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(中)(生)(存)(所)(必)(须)(的)(机)(动)(力)(和)(火)(力)(。今)(天)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(陆)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(还)(不)(具)(备)(强)(大)(能)(力)(以)(击)(败)(世)(界)(范)(围)(内)(的)(强)(力)(对)(手)(或)(清)(除)(即)(将)(出)(现)(的)(威)(胁)(。如)(果)(在)(机)(动)(力)(和)(火)(力)(能)(力)(上)(不)(能)(取)(得)(更)(大)(进)(步)(以)(及)(至)(少)(保)(持)(中)(等)(水)(平)(防)(护)(力)(,美)(军)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(可)(能)(只)(会)(在)(更)(加)(强)(大)(的)(敌)(人)(面)(临)(遭)(遇)(挫)(折)(而)(不)(是)(将)(其)(击)(败)(。由)(于)(未)(来)(地)(面)(紧)(急)(事)(态)(有)(可)(能)(在)(没)(有)(任)(何)(战)(略)(征)(兆)(情)(况)(下)(突)(然)(发)(生)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(需)(要)(形)(成)(更)(加)(强)(大)(的)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,使)(其)(能)(够)(从)(战)(略)(距)(离)(上)(进)(行)(部)(署)(并)(在)(对)(抗)(能)(力)(强)(大)(的)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”环)(境)(中)(高)(效)(执)(行)(作)(战)(行)(动)(。  近)(年)(来)(,关)(于)(建)(立)(这)(种)(类)(型)(部)(队)(的)(建)(议)(曾)(多)(次)(出)(现)(。直)(到)(20世)(纪)(90年)(代)(中)(期)(,陆)(军)(的)(“装)(甲)(火)(炮)(系)(统)(”(ArmoredGunSystem)试)(图)(满)(足)(这)(种)(需)(求)(,但)(是)(陆)(军)(领)(导)(人)(为)(节)(省)(经)(费)(而)(终)(止)(了)(这)(一)(项)(目)(。2000年)(,退)(役)(准)(将)(大)(卫)(格)(兰)(奇)((DavidGrange)和)(休)(巴)(瓦)(斯)(德)(切)(格)((HubaWassdeCzege)提)(出)(了)(一)(种)(被)(称)(为)(“空)(中)(机)(械)(化)(打)(击)(”(Air-MechStrike)的)(概)(念)(。其)(思)(想)(后)(经)(他)(人)(发)(展)(后)(可)(概)(括)(为)(建)(立)(可)(空)(中)(部)(署)(的)(机)(械)(化)(部)(队)(,使)(其)(在)(投)(送)(后)(能)(够)(立)(即)(实)(施)(作)(战)(以)(震)(慑)(敌)(人)(,从)(而)(免)(除)(联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(构)(建)(长)(期)(作)(战)(力)(量)(的)(需)(求)(。更)(近)(一)(段)(时)(期)(,又)(有)(观)(点)(认)(为)(陆)(军)(“斯)(特)(赖)(克)(”步)(战)(车)((Stryker)和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(轻)(型)(装)(甲)(车)((LAV)可)(以)(通)(过)(空)(投)(提)(供)(类)(似)(能)(力)(。然)(而)(,无)(论)(“斯)(特)(赖)(克)(”步)(战)(车)(和)(轻)(型)(装)(甲)(车)(都)(称)(不)(上)(是)(真)(正)(的)(作)(战)(车)(辆)(,二)(者)(都)(缺)(乏)(击)(败)(强)(力)(敌)(人)(和)(消)(灭)(混)(合)(型)(威)(胁)(所)(需)(的)(越)(野)(机)(动)(能)(力)(和)(火)(力)(。  更)(加)(可)(行)(的)(方)(式)(是)(重)(新)(配)(置)(陆)(军)(空)(降)(兵)(编)(队)(,建)(立)(4支)(旅)(级)(规)(模)(具)(备)(空)(中)(或)(海)(上)(投)(送)(能)(力)(的)(轻)(型)(机)(械)(化)(全)(要)(素)(合)(成)(兵)(种)(打)(击)(部)(队)(。作)(为)(“全)(球)(响)(应)(部)(队)(”的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,这)(支)(力)(量)(能)(够)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(,随)(后)(迅)(速)(突)(击)(夺)(占)(重)(要)(地)(区)(和)(在)(后)(续)(部)(队)(到)(达)(之)(前)(执)(行)(侦)(察)(任)(务)(等)(形)(式)(扩)(展)(空)(降)(场)(或)(登)(陆)(区)(。此)(外)(,它)(们)(还)(能)(够)(阻)(挡)(做)(出)(反)(应)(的)(敌)(军)(为)(联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(赢)(得)(发)(展)(局)(面)(和)(投)(入)(更)(多)(作)(战)(力)(量)(的)(时)(间)(。在)(恰)(当)(赋)(能)(力)(量)(的)(支)(援)(下)(,此)(类)(部)(队)(能)(够)(极)(大)(提)(升)(联)(合)(部)(队)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。这)(种)(部)(队)(运)(用)(的)(主)(要)(作)(战)(车)(辆)(应)(该)(与)(“装)(甲)(火)(炮)(系)(统)(”具)(备)(类)(似)(能)(力)(,并)(且)(装)(备)(更)(加)(现)(代)(化)(的)(技)(术)(。在)(当)(前)(作)(战)(车)(辆)(中)(,德)(国)(“美)(洲)(狮)(”(Puma)装)(甲)(车)(和)(俄)(罗)(斯)(BMD-4装)(甲)(车)(是)(最)(好)(的)(代)(表)(平)(台)(,而)(且)(其)(获)(取)(途)(径)(也)(较)(为)(通)(畅)(。如)(果)(不)(具)(备)(某)(种)(形)(式)(的)(轻)(型)(装)(甲)(能)(力)(,未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(将)(给)(突)(击)(部)(队)(制)(造)(极)(大)(风)(险)(,容)(易)(出)(现)(大)(量)(人)(员)(伤)(亡)(的)(情)(况)(发)(生)(甚)(至)(导)(致)(任)(务)(失)(败)(。  除)(了)(重)(新)(构)(建)(进)(入)(部)(队)(的)(组)(织)(结)(构)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(还)(必)(须)(通)(过)(更)(加)(高)(效)(的)(方)(式)(运)(用)(这)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(。为)(达)(到)(这)(种)(目)(的)(,美)(军)(应)(该)(将)(其)(投)(射)(至)(环)(境)(恶)(劣)(且)(出)(人)(意)(料)(的)(穿)(插)(点)(和)(登)(陆)(区)(,而)(不)(是)(港)(口)(或)(者)(机)(场)(,从)(而)(省)(去)(建)(立)(防)(御)(体)(系)(的)(烦)(重)(任)(务)(并)(间)(接)(打)(击)(敌)(人)(的)(薄)(弱)(之)(处)(。为)(夺)(取)(、保)(持)(并)(利)(用)(主)(动)(权)(对)(抗)(未)(来)(威)(胁)(,联)(合)(指)(挥)(官)(将)(需)(要)(同)(时)(发)(动)(多)(种)(形)(式)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,在)(同)(一)(时)(期)(以)(相)(互)(支)(持)(增)(效)(的)(方)(式)(协)(调)(空)(降)(、空)(中)(突)(击)(和)(两)(栖)(作)(战)(。通)(过)(这)(种)(作)(战)(方)(式)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(能)(够)(使)(敌)(人)(陷)(入)(多)(重)(战)(术)(和)(战)(役)(困)(境)(,打)(破)(其)(系)(统)(平)(衡)(、摧)(毁)(其)(战)(斗)(意)(志)(。历)(史)(上)(,运)(用)(空)(降)(和)(两)(栖)(作)(战)(力)(量)(总)(能)(被)(证)(明)(是)(最)(为)(高)(效)(的)(力)(量)(投)(射)(方)(式)(。未)(来)(,其)(仍)(将)(是)(一)(种)(战)(胜)(具)(备)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(敌)(人)(重)(要)(手)(段)(,并)(成)(为)(实)(现)(当)(前)(联)(合)(作)(战)(概)(念)(预)(想)(的)(跨)(域)(协)(同)(的)(有)(效)(途)(径)(。  未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(将)(需)(要)(发)(挥)(机)(动)(性)(,通)(过)(分)(布)(式)(行)(动)(避)(免)(给)(对)(手)(制)(造)(有)(利)(可)(图)(的)(攻)(击)(目)(标)(。为)(了)(应)(对)(杀)(伤)(性)(更)(强)(武)(器)(的)(出)(现)(,战)(场)(由)(于)(军)(队)(采)(用)(分)(布)(式)(行)(动)(以)(避)(免)(被)(摧)(毁)(而)(在)(过)(去)(50年)(中)(持)(续)(变)(得)(空)(旷)(。通)(过)(在)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(运)(用)(“分)(散)(机)(动)(战)(”的)(概)(念)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(有)(能)(力)(大)(幅)(减)(弱)(敌)(人)(精)(确)(制)(导)(武)(器)(的)(打)(击)(效)(能)(,同)(时)(发)(挥)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(更)(为)(强)(大)(的)(机)(动)(性)(寻)(找)(对)(手)(弱)(点)(而)(不)(是)(仅)(仅)(在)(其)(强)(力)(攻)(势)(下)(做)(出)(应)(对)(。最)(终)(,进)(入)(作)(战)(地)(区)(的)(部)(队)(必)(须)(迅)(速)(完)(全)(由)(进)(入)(作)(战)(向)(攻)(击)(作)(战)(的)(过)(渡)(,并)(确)(保)(维)(持)(战)(斗)(动)(能)(直)(到)(后)(续)(增)(援)(部)(队)(到)(达)(。  3.发)(展)(先)(进)(无)(人)(机)(和)(反)(无)(人)(机)(系)(统)(  在)(众)(多)(最)(新)(出)(现)(并)(可)(能)(对)(未)(来)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(造)(成)(巨)(大)(影)(响)(的)(技)(术)(中)(,无)(人)(飞)(行)(器)(系)(统)(的)(潜)(力)(最)(为)(显)(著)(。如)(果)(得)(到)(正)(确)(运)(用)(,它)(们)(将)(为)(美)(国)(军)(队)(提)(供)(关)(于)(进)(入)(点)(和)(周)(围)(地)(区)(地)(面)(情)(况)(的)(实)(时)(态)(势)(感)(知)(信)(息)(。为)(确)(保)(未)(来)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(高)(效)(性)(,联)(合)(部)(队)(应)(该)(发)(展)(健)(壮)(的)(战)(术)(无)(人)(机)(能)(力)(,具)(备)(足)(够)(数)(量)(通)(过)(空)(中)(投)(放)(或)(随)(突)(击)(部)(队)(共)(同)(登)(陆)(等)(形)(式)(确)(保)(指)(挥)(官)(尽)(早)(获)(取)(态)(势)(感)(知)(信)(息)(。这)(些)(系)(统)(平)(台)(还)(应)(该)(具)(备)(搭)(载)(武)(器)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(使)(其)(能)(够)(为)(实)(施)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(部)(队)(提)(供)(迅)(速)(火)(力)(支)(援)(,并)(与)(传)(统)(的)(固)(定)(翼)(飞)(机)(火)(力)(支)(援)(行)(动)(进)(行)(整)(合)(。考)(虑)(到)(精)(确)(制)(导)(弹)(药)(威)(胁)(的)(广)(泛)(扩)(展)(,这)(种)(能)(力)(尤)(其)(具)(备)(重)(要)(意)(义)(。从)(其)(登)(陆)(上)(岸)(的)(时)(刻)(开)(始)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(就)(需)(要)(利)(用)(这)(种)(能)(力)(阻)(止)(或)(削)(弱)(敌)(人)(行)(动)(从)(而)(保)(持)(作)(战)(主)(动)(。关)(于)(无)(人)(机)(运)(用)(的)(联)(合)(战)(术)(和)(作)(战)(理)(论)(发)(展)(也)(应)(该)(成)(为)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(重)(点)(。  此)(外)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(还)(应)(该)(发)(展)(更)(加)(高)(效)(的)(反)(无)(人)(机)(能)(力)(和)(战)(术)(。从)(当)(前)(到)(2020年)(,小)(型)(空)(中)(系)(统)(技)(术)(将)(在)(相)(似)(的)(对)(手)(之)(间)(迅)(速)(扩)(散)(,尤)(其)(是)(那)(些)(因)(无)(法)(承)(担)(高)(额)(成)(本)(而)(不)(能)(在)(主)(要)(空)(战)(平)(台)(上)(与)(美)(国)(竞)(争)(的)(国)(家)(。混)(合)(型)(威)(胁)(敌)(人)(尤)(其)(有)(可)(能)(运)(用)(数)(量)(巨)(大)(但)(价)(格)(低)(廉)(的)(小)(型)(化)(无)(人)(机)(攻)(击)(美)(国)(军)(队)(并)(限)(制)(盟)(友)(军)(队)(无)(人)(机)(的)(有)(效)(作)(用)(范)(围)(。联)(合)(部)(队)(当)(前)(就)(应)(该)(预)(测)(到)(这)(种)(局)(势)(的)(可)(能)(走)(向)(,发)(展)(能)(够)(解)(除)(位)(于)(预)(定)(滩)(头)(阵)(地)(上)(空)(或)(附)(近)(无)(人)(机)(威)(胁)(的)(系)(统)(。高)(效)(的)(反)(无)(人)(机)(能)(力)(还)(可)(在)(突)(击)(部)(队)(登)(陆)(后)(迅)(速)(投)(入)(作)(战)(。  4.改)(进)(海)(基)(后)(勤)(保)(障)(能)(力)(  未)(来)(联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(另)(外)(一)(种)(关)(键)(赋)(能)(工)(具)(是)(高)(效)(的)(海)(基)(后)(勤)(系)(统)(,其)(能)(够)(在)(短)(时)(间)(或)(更)(加)(周)(期)(内)(为)(上)(岸)(部)(队)(提)(供)(持)(续)(的)(物)(资)(补)(给)(流)(。随)(着)(美)(国)(军)(队)(在)(前)(进)(海)(港)(和)(空)(港)(登)(陆)((airandseaportsofdebarkation)可)(能)(性)(变)(得)(越)(来)(越)(低)(,未)(来)(联)(合)(部)(队)(必)(须)(要)(对)(这)(种)(局)(势)(做)(出)(预)(测)(,通)(过)(发)(展)(直)(接)(从)(海)(上)(持)(续)(保)(障)(部)(队)(能)(力)(作)(为)(对)(上)(述)(登)(陆)(方)(式)(的)(补)(充)(。  “联)(合)(海)(基)(”(JointSeabasing)和)(“联)(合)(岸)(上)(后)(勤)(”(JointLogisticsOver-The-Shore)是)(两)(种)(具)(有)(实)(施)(价)(值)(的)(相)(互)(支)(持)(的)(概)(念)(。“联)(合)(海)(基)(”概)(念)(预)(想)(组)(合)(和)(运)(用)(一)(系)(列)(不)(同)(的)(战)(略)(和)(战)(区)(海)(上)(资)(产)(,通)(过)(能)(够)(避)(免)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”威)(胁)(的)(方)(式)(指)(导)(、运)(用)(、保)(护)(和)(维)(持)(联)(合)(部)(队)(。在)(诸)(如)(海)(港)(和)(空)(港)(登)(陆)(场)(等)(关)(键)(节)(点)(不)(存)(在)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,通)(过)(提)(供)(维)(持)(联)(合)(部)(队)(所)(必)(要)(的)(后)(勤)(资)(产)(,“联)(合)(岸)(上)(后)(勤)(”概)(念)(能)(够)(对)(“联)(合)(海)(基)(”概)(念)(形)(成)(支)(持)(。“联)(合)(岸)(上)(后)(勤)(”行)(动)(还)(能)(够)(在)(地)(形)(恶)(劣)(以)(及)(港)(口)(实)(施)(遭)(到)(破)(坏)(或)(数)(量)(不)(足)(等)(条)(件)(下)(提)(供)(维)(持)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(能)(力)(。而)(且)(,“联)(合)(岸)(上)(后)(勤)(”概)(念)(还)(支)(持)(在)(战)(区)(内)(部)(通)(过)(海)(运)(手)(段)(将)(部)(队)(、装)(备)(和)(补)(给)(物)(资)(向)(更)(加)(接)(近)(作)(战)(实)(施)(的)(地)(区)(转)(运)(。  作)(为)(“2011联)(合)(强)(行)(进)(入)(战)(争)(实)(验)(”(the2011JointForcibleEntryWarfightingExperiment)取)(得)(的)(结)(论)(之)(一)(,建)(立)(海)(基)(联)(合)(平)(台)(机)(动)(系)(统)(能)(够)(为)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(提)(供)(非)(常)(有)(价)(值)(的)(作)(战)(和)(维)(持)(能)(力)(。这)(种)(系)(统)(能)(够)(为)(联)(合)(作)(战)(指)(挥)(官)(创)(造)(更)(加)(广)(阔)(的)(空)(间)(,选)(择)(和)(采)(取)(行)(动)(越)(过)(或)(包)(围)(敌)(部)(队)(、夺)(取)(关)(键)(地)(区)(和)(设)(施)(、破)(坏)(敌)(后)(方)(地)(区)(稳)(定)(或)(清)(除)(具)(备)(“反)(介)(入)(/区)(域)(拒)(止)(”能)(力)(的)(近)(岸)(部)(队)(。此)(外)(,“联)(合)(海)(基)(”和)(“联)(合)(岸)(上)(后)(勤)(”概)(念)(还)(有)(助)(于)(联)(合)(部)(队)(在)(冲)(突)(地)(区)(之)(间)(比)(当)(前)(更)(加)(迅)(速)(地)(转)(移)(军)(事)(力)(量)(——尤)(其)(考)(虑)(到)(资)(源)(紧)(缺)(的)(时)(代)(特)(别)(要)(求)(实)(施)(灵)(敏)(性)(强)(的)(战)(略)(。从)(部)(队)(维)(持)(的)(角)(度)(出)(发)(,这)(些)(概)(念)(不)(仅)(能)(够)(降)(低)(资)(源)(需)(求)(总)(量)(,而)(且)(还)(能)(促)(使)(联)(合)(部)(队)(指)(挥)(官)(在)(大)(规)(模)(物)(资)(储)(备)(时)(期)(必)(须)(要)(忍)(受)(的)(作)(战)(停)(顿)(时)(间)(最)(小)(化)(。这)(种)(方)(式)(还)(能)(够)(减)(小)(战)(略)(空)(运)(的)(总)(量)(,为)(联)(合)(部)(队)(提)(供)(一)(种)(通)(过)(距)(离)(更)(近)(的)(地)(面)(交)(通)(线)(维)(持)(部)(队)(的)(灵)(活)(方)(式)(。  5.在)(军)(事)(力)(量)(结)(构)(中)(保)(持)(足)(够)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(部)(队)(  “联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”必)(须)(在)(其)(力)(量)(结)(构)(中)(保)(持)(足)(够)(的)(相)(关)(部)(队)(从)(而)(为)(决)(策)(者)(提)(供)(任)(何)(形)(式)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(选)(项)(。具)(体)(来)(说)(,陆)(军)(应)(该)(在)(其)(现)(役)(力)(量)(结)(构)(中)(保)(持)(4个)(空)(降)(兵)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(的)(总)(体)(规)(模)(,同)(时)(将)(其)(重)(新)(配)(置)(为)(轻)(型)(机)(械)(化)(打)(击)(群)(。其)(中)(3个)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(将)(轮)(换)(充)(当)(“全)(球)(响)(应)(部)(队)(”中)(的)(空)(降)(兵)(元)(素)(。另)(外)(1个)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(将)(作)(为)(战)(略)(保)(留)(力)(量)(应)(对)(全)(球)(其)(他)(地)(区)(爆)(发)(的)(紧)(急)(事)(件)(,并)(在)(第)(二)(战)(区)(发)(挥)(首)(要)(行)(动)(部)(队)(的)(作)(用)(。此)(外)(,陆)(军)(还)(应)(该)(保)(持)(3个)(接)(受)(高)(强)(度)(空)(中)(突)(击)(作)(战)(行)(动)(训)(练)(、有)(能)(力)(掌)(握)(足)(够)(突)(击)(和)(攻)(击)(直)(升)(机)(资)(产)(执)(行)(旅)(级)(规)(模)(空)(中)(突)(击)(任)(务)(的)(步)(兵)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(。这)(些)(部)(队)(应)(该)(轮)(换)(处)(于)(战)(备)(状)(态)(,确)(保)(在)(任)(何)(时)(刻)(其)(中)(1个)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(能)(够)(立)(刻)(完)(成)(全)(球)(部)(署)(准)(备)(。  美)(军)(海)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(应)(该)(维)(持)(“海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(旅)(2.0”能)(力)(从)(而)(确)(保)(能)(够)(在)(两)(个)(不)(同)(战)(区)(实)(施)(快)(速)(反)(应)(两)(栖)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,并)(保)(持)(必)(要)(情)(况)(下)(向)(同)(一)(战)(区)(同)(时)(派)(出)(2支)(远)(征)(旅)(的)(能)(力)(。每)(支)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(远)(征)(旅)(都)(应)(该)(具)(备)(轻)(型)(机)(械)(化)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(为)(步)(兵)(提)(供)(更)(强)(机)(动)(力)(和)(火)(力)(。此)(类)(部)(队)(还)(应)(该)(包)(括)(不)(可)(或)(缺)(的)(空)(中)(作)(战)(元)(素)((AirCombatElement)和)(后)(勤)(作)(战)(元)(素)((LogisticsCombatElement)。为)(对)(这)(种)(需)(求)(提)(供)(支)(持)(,海)(军)(应)(该)(具)(备)(足)(够)(的)(改)(进)(型)(两)(栖)(舰)(艇)(、船)(坞)(舰)(和)(登)(陆)(艇)(确)(保)(完)(成)(同)(时)(运)(用)(2支)(远)(征)(旅)(的)(任)(务)(。与)(此)(同)(时)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(至)(少)(还)(应)(该)(保)(持)(12个)(V-22“鱼)(鹰)(”直)(升)(机)(中)(队)(,其)(中)(各)(有)(6个)(中)(队)(分)(别)(关)(注)(太)(平)(洋)(和)(大)(西)(洋)(地)(区)(。CH-53“海)(上)(种)(马)(”直)(升)(机)(资)(产)(也)(应)(该)(保)(持)(足)(够)(规)(模)(,使)(其)(能)(够)(从)(海)(基)(平)(台)(或)(地)(面)(中)(间)(停)(泊)(基)(地)(运)(输)(1个)(团)(级)(规)(模)(部)(队)(至)(部)(署)(地)(区)(。  美)(国)(空)(军)(应)(该)(继)(续)(采)(购)(足)(够)(的)(第)(4代)(和)(第)(5代)(战)(斗)(机)(以)(确)(保)(在)(任)(何)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(局)(势)(下)(夺)(取)(制)(空)(权)(和)(具)(备)(高)(效)(打)(击)(能)(力)(。在)(上)(文)(预)(想)(的)(4种)(局)(势)(中)(,很)(明)(显)(关)(于)(伊)(朗)(和)(朝)(鲜)(的)(想)(定)(所)(需)(运)(用)(资)(源)(量)(最)(大)(。空)(军)(还)(必)(须)(确)(保)(掌)(握)(足)(够)(的)(航)(空)(监)(视)(资)(产)(,从)(而)(为)(战)(役)(指)(挥)(官)(和)(战)(术)(部)(队)(提)(供)(态)(势)(理)(解)(支)(持)(。为)(了)(运)(输)(和)(运)(用)(陆)(军)(空)(降)(兵)(部)(队)(,空)(军)(必)(须)(维)(持)(足)(够)(的)(战)(略)(空)(运)(能)(力)(以)(确)(保)(在)(一)(次)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(能)(够)(运)(输)(和)(空)(降)(一)(支)(整)(建)(制)(旅)(作)(战)(队)(,同)(时)(掌)(握)(剩)(余)(资)(产)(维)(持)(世)(界)(其)(他)(地)(区)(的)(稳)(定)(空)(运)(需)(求)(。  无)(论)(在)(任)(何)(时)(间)(,海)(军)(都)(必)(须)(在)(太)(平)(洋)(和)(大)(西)(洋)(保)(持)(“航)(母)(打)(击)(群)(1.0”作)(战)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(威)(慑)(潜)(在)(入)(侵)(者)(、确)(保)(关)(键)(战)(略)(地)(区)(介)(入)(通)(道)(、提)(供)(即)(时)(打)(击)(能)(力)(以)(及)(保)(证)(海)(上)(交)(通)(线)(安)(全)(。海)(军)(必)(须)(在)(其)(舰)(队)(序)(列)(中)(保)(持)(8个)(航)(母)(编)(队)(,而)(且)(为)(了)(满)(足)(未)(来)(作)(战)(环)(境)(需)(求)(,海)(军)(还)(应)(该)(在)(两)(个)(大)(洋)(内)(将)(这)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(升)(级)(至)(“航)(母)(打)(击)(群)(2.0”水)(平)(。一)(旦)(投)(入)(作)(战)(应)(用)(,海)(军)(部)(队)(必)(须)(迅)(速)(夺)(取)(制)(海)(权)(,同)(时)(具)(备)(按)(照)(需)(求)(在)(两)(个)(重)(大)(紧)(急)(事)(态)(地)(区)(重)(新)(分)(配)(作)(战)(资)(源)(的)(能)(力)(。此)(外)(,海)(军)(航)(空)(兵)(部)(队)(还)(要)(与)(空)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(展)(开)(紧)(密)(合)(作)(,为)(到)(达)(的)(进)(入)(部)(队)(提)(供)(空)(中)(拦)(截)(和)(近)(距)(空)(中)(火)(力)(支)(援)(。  最)(后)(,“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”还)(必)(须)(保)(持)(其)(特)(种)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,从)(而)(在)(世)(界)(范)(围)(内)(执)(行)(战)(略)(突)(袭)(、直)(接)(行)(动)(、反)(恐)(和)(其)(他)(特)(殊)(任)(务)(。联)(合)(部)(队)(需)(要)(保)(留)(的)(关)(键)(力)(量)(结)(构)(包)(括)(陆)(军)(第)(75步)(兵)(团)(、第)(160特)(种)(作)(战)(航)(空)(团)(,海)(军)(海)(豹)(突)(击)(队)(和)(其)(他)(致)(力)(于)(当)(前)(反)(恐)(事)(业)(的)(国)(家)(资)(产)(。正)(如)(本)(文)(想)(定)(所)(展)(现)(的)(,美)(国)(需)(要)(足)(够)(数)(量)(的)(特)(种)(部)(队)(使)(其)(能)(够)(在)(全)(球)(范)(围)(内)(广)(泛)(分)(布)(的)(地)(区)(执)(行)(多)(种)(类)(型)(持)(续)(的)(低)(烈)(度)(作)(战)(行)(动)(,而)(在)(更)(大)(规)(模)(作)(战)(行)(动)(需)(要)(时)(又)(能)(够)(集)(中)(足)(够)(数)(量)(的)(特)(种)(部)(队)(,如)(为)(确)(保)(大)(规)(模)(杀)(伤)(性)(武)(器)(安)(全)(或)(阻)(止)(入)(侵)(而)(执)(行)(的)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(等)(。  在)(军)(事)(力)(量)(规)(模)(缩)(小)(的)(过)(程)(中)(,任)(何)(关)(于)(保)(留)(力)(量)(结)(构)(的)(讨)(论)(都)(还)(必)(须)(考)(虑)(为)(达)(成)(这)(种)(目)(的)(而)(应)(该)(做)(出)(的)(必)(要)(舍)(弃)(。对)(于)(此)(问)(题)(,陆)(军)(可)(以)(将)(数)(个)(“斯)(特)(赖)(克)(”旅)(或)(步)(兵)(旅)(及)(其)(相)(关)(支)(援)(单)(位)(转)(为)(非)(现)(役)(部)(队)(。陆)(军)(还)(可)(以)(减)(小)(其)(预)(备)(役)(力)(量)(规)(模)(,目)(前)(这)(种)(方)(案)(实)(际)(上)(还)(没)(有)(得)(到)(真)(正)(讨)(论)(。作)(为)(重)(塑)(美)(国)(三)(位)(一)(体)(核)(打)(击)(能)(力)(整)(体)(努)(力)(的)(一)(部)(分)(,空)(军)(可)(以)(相)(应)(缩)(小)(其)(核)(导)(弹)(和)(轰)(炸)(机)(部)(队)(规)(模)(。此)(外)(,将)(F-35项)(目)(规)(模)(减)(小)(一)(半)(以)(及)(削)(减)(空)(军)(联)(队)(的)(数)(量)(能)(够)(提)(供)(相)(当)(大)(一)(部)(分)(预)(算)(空)(间)(满)(足)(陆)(军)(和)(海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(发)(展)(具)(备)(更)(强)(能)(力)(的)(作)(战)(进)(入)(部)(队)(的)(经)(费)(需)(求)(。在)(依)(然)(能)(够)(确)(保)(足)(够)(打)(击)(能)(力)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,海)(军)(也)(可)(以)(减)(少)(部)(分)(航)(空)(母)(舰)(及)(其)(相)(关)(航)(空)(兵)(联)(队)(数)(量)(。最)(后)(,联)(合)(司)(令)(部)(数)(量)(可)(以)(进)(行)(大)(幅)(压)(缩)(,从)(而)(节)(省)(数)(目)(可)(观)(的)(人)(力)(成)(本)(和)(资)(源)(消)(耗)(。与)(建)(立)(诸)(如)(美)(国)(网)(络)(司)(令)(部)(等)(新)(型)(司)(令)(部)(不)(同)(,国)(防)(部)(应)(该)(削)(减)(联)(合)(司)(令)(部)(的)(数)(量)(同)(时)(坦)(率)(地)(承)(认)(过)(分)(投)(资)(战)(略)(情)(报)(组)(织)(的)(事)(实)(并)(进)(行)(重)(组)(。通)(过)(合)(并)(若)(干)(此)(类)(机)(构)(,国)(防)(部)(能)(够)(裁)(撤)(大)(量)(并)(不)(是)(必)(须)(的)(岗)(位)(,节)(省)(数)(量)(巨)(大)(的)(资)(源)(并)(使)(当)(前)(存)(在)(于)(华)(盛)(顿)(和)(全)(国)(各)(个)(地)(区)(的)(大)(量)(情)(报)(组)(织)(进)(入)(合)(理)(发)(展)(的)(轨)(道)(。理)(所)(当)(然)(地)(,任)(何)(关)(于)(此)(类)(力)(量)(结)(构)(调)(整)(代)(价)(的)(讨)(论)(都)(需)(要)(对)(影)(响)(和)(效)(果)(做)(出)(仔)(细)(分)(析)(,但)(是)(这)(些)(细)(节)(内)(容)(已)(经)(超)(出)(了)(本)(论)(文)(的)(研)(究)(范)(围)(。  第)(6章)(:结)(论)(  “你)(们)(会)(听)(闻)(或)(真)(或)(假)(的)(战)(争)(消)(息)(。但)(千)(万)(不)(要)(惊)(慌)(,因)(为)(这)(是)(末)(日)(来)(临)(前)(必)(然)(发)(生)(的)(事)(,只)(是)(还)(未)(到)(世)(界)(末)(日)(。那)(时)(民)(与)(民)(相)(斗)(,国)(与)(国)(战)(争)(。”  ——《马)(太)(福)(音)(》  在)(未)(来)(10年)(中)(,作)(战)(环)(境)(的)(迅)(速)(变)(化)(将)(使)(美)(国)(面)(临)(多)(种)(项)(重)(大)(战)(略)(挑)(战)(。而)(应)(对)(这)(些)(挑)(战)(的)(关)(键)(要)(素)(就)(是)(向)(世)(界)(上)(重)(要)(的)(战)(略)(地)(区)(投)(送)(军)(事)(力)(量)(从)(而)(威)(慑)(或)(击)(败)(入)(侵)(行)(动)(。面)(对)(一)(系)(列)(新)(型)(威)(胁)(和)(作)(战)(手)(段)(,在)(全)(球)(力)(量)(收)(缩)(态)(势)(以)(及)(大)(量)(减)(少)(国)(防)(开)(支)(的)(压)(力)(下)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(必)(须)(大)(幅)(改)(进)(其)(高)(效)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(的)(能)(力)(以)(满)(足)(国)(家)(战)(略)(需)(求)(。  本)(文)(为)(美)(国)(军)(队)(应)(该)(采)(取)(哪)(些)(措)(施)(确)(保)(“联)(合)(部)(队)(-2020”维)(持)(成)(功)(实)(施)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(能)(力)(提)(供)(了)(建)(议)(。这)(种)(能)(力)(最)(为)(关)(键)(的)(先)(决)(因)(素)(是)(在)(空)(中)(和)(海)(洋)(作)(战)(域)(相)(对)(能)(力)(日)(益)(强)(大)(的)(潜)(在)(对)(手)(占)(据)(优)(势)(。然)(而)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(不)(能)(在)(投)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(途)(停)(顿)(下)(来)(,而)(是)(需)(要)(投)(入)(能)(够)(迅)(速)(部)(署)(的)(地)(面)(打)(击)(部)(队)(,其)(通)(过)(使)(作)(战)(力)(量)(进)(入)(与)(美)(国)(重)(要)(战)(略)(利)(益)(相)(关)(地)(区)(而)(在)(战)(略)(距)(离)(上)(对)(任)(何)(潜)(在)(威)(胁)(做)(出)(反)(应)(。在)(理)(想)(条)(件)(下)(,这)(些)(部)(队)(应)(该)(能)(够)(实)(现)(空)(中)(部)(署)(并)(且)(具)(备)(足)(够)(机)(动)(力)(和)(火)(力)(从)(而)(在)(到)(达)(遥)(远)(作)(战)(地)(区)(后)(与)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(作)(战)(并)(取)(胜)(。这)(些)(轻)(型)(装)(甲)(打)(击)(部)(队)(需)(要)(新)(型)(作)(战)(概)(念)(的)(指)(导)(,帮)(助)(其)(在)(作)(战)(运)(用)(过)(程)(中)(规)(避)(敌)(人)(优)(势)(并)(且)(提)(高)(跨)(域)(协)(同)(能)(力)(。理)(解)(新)(型)(作)(战)(技)(术)(将)(变)(得)(至)(关)(重)(要)(。由)(于)(这)(种)(原)(因)(,美)(国)(军)(事)(力)(量)(应)(该)(对)(于)(扩)(展)(无)(人)(机)(和)(反)(无)(人)(机)(能)(力)(进)(行)(投)(资)(,使)(其)(改)(进)(联)(合)(部)(队)(态)(势)(感)(知)(能)(力)(并)(发)(展)(运)(用)(联)(合)(火)(力)(支)(援)(地)(面)(部)(队)(夺)(取)(、保)(持)(和)(利)(用)(战)(场)(主)(动)(的)(新)(型)(方)(式)(。未)(来)(也)(将)(需)(要)(新)(型)(保)(障)(模)(式)(。相)(应)(地)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(应)(该)(发)(展)(海)(基)(后)(勤)(概)(念)(,使)(其)(超)(越)(或)(规)(避)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(的)(区)(域)(拒)(止)(战)(术)(。最)(后)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(必)(须)(在)(其)(现)(役)(力)(量)(结)(构)(中)(保)(持)(足)(够)(能)(够)(执)(行)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(任)(务)(的)(部)(队)(,只)(有)(这)(样)(其)(才)(能)(在)(任)(何)(需)(要)(情)(况)(下)(运)(用)(训)(练)(有)(素)(和)(战)(备)(充)(分)(的)(部)(队)(加)(以)(应)(对)(。对)(于)(防)(区)(外)(武)(器)(系)(统)(或)(将)(精)(确)(作)(战)(作)(为)(未)(来)(战)(争)(主)(要)(方)(式)(的)(过)(分)(依)(赖)(不)(可)(能)(在)(混)(乱)(和)(暴)(力)(的)(世)(界)(充)(分)(保)(护)(和)(推)(进)(美)(国)(利)(益)(。  当)(政)(治)(家)(和)(国)(防)(官)(员)(考)(虑)(如)(何)(在)(后)(阿)(富)(汗)(战)(争)(时)(代)(重)(塑)(军)(事)(力)(量)(时)(,他)(们)(应)(该)(得)(到)(在)(联)(合)(部)(队)(中)(维)(持)(健)(壮)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(的)(建)(议)(。如)(果)(这)(种)(能)(力)(缺)(失)(,美)(军)(在)(面)(对)(即)(将)(出)(现)(的)(危)(机)(或)(冲)(突)(时)(也)(许)(将)(不)(能)(向)(总)(统)(和)(国)(防)(部)(队)(提)(供)(风)(险)(级)(别)(可)(控)(的)(选)(项)(。正)(如)(陆)(军)(退)(役)(将)(军)(卡)(尔)(斯)(廷)(纳)(近)(期)(所)(指)(出)(的)(:“无)(论)(局)(势)(如)(何)(,如)(果)(你)(没)(有)(强)(行)(进)(入)(某)(一)(地)(区)(并)(派)(出)(地)(面)(部)(队)(控)(制)(局)(势)(的)(能)(力)(,你)(将)(无)(法)(改)(变)(任)(何)(事)(。如)(果)(不)(具)(备)(高)(效)(的)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(能)(力)(,美)(国)(军)(队)(就)(将)(变)(得)(无)(关)(紧)(要)(”。所)(有)(军)(种)(单)(位)(在)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(行)(动)(中)(都)(具)(有)(重)(要)(作)(用)(,如)(果)(蕴)(藏)(在)(所)(有)(作)(战)(域)(内)(的)(能)(力)(不)(能)(整)(合)(成)(为)(联)(合)(部)(队)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(,此)(类)(作)(战)(行)(动)(就)(不)(可)(能)(取)(得)(成)(功)(。实)(现)(这)(种)(目)(标)(需)(要)(自)(上)(而)(下)(确)(保)(政)(治)(重)(点)(和)(资)(源)(得)(到)(正)(确)(设)(定)(和)(分)(配)(。美)(国)(军)(队)(还)(需)(要)(做)(出)(必)(要)(牺)(牲)(同)(时)(使)(这)(些)(重)(要)(能)(力)(风)(险)(保)(持)(在)(可)(以)(接)(受)(的)(级)(别)(。  在)(其)(就)(任)(美)(国)(中)(央)(司)(令)(部)(指)(挥)(官)(之)(前)(不)(久)(,海)(军)(陆)(战)(队)(詹)(姆)(斯)(马)(蒂)(斯)((JamesMattis)将)(军)(曾)(表)(示)(:“当)(美)(国)(丧)(失)(强)(行)(进)(入)(他)(国)(领)(土)(能)(力)(时)(,我)(们)(在)(这)(个)(投)(降)(不)(会)(换)(来)(好)(结)(果)(的)(世)(界)(上)(拱)(手)(让)(出)(其)(影)(响)(力)(。”尽)(管)(这)(段)(评)(论)(中)(蕴)(藏)(的)(智)(慧)(不)(言)(喻)(,但)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(问)(题)(在)(许)(多)(战)(略)(和)(政)(策)(领)(域)(讨)(论)(中)(并)(不)(经)(常)(出)(现)(。与)(对)(夺)(取)(、保)(持)(和)(利)(用)(战)(场)(主)(动)(权)(压)(制)(适)(应)(性)(强)(并)(且)(能)(力)(日)(渐)(强)(大)(敌)(人)(的)(问)(题)(进)(入)(批)(判)(性)(思)(考)(不)(同)(,一)(些)(分)(析)(人)(士)(很)(明)(显)(认)(为)(聚)(焦)(关)(注)(介)(入)(和)(“拒)(止)(威)(慑)(”的)(战)(略)(足)(以)(在)(这)(个)(危)(险)(的)(世)(界)(上)(保)(护)(国)(家)(安)(全)(和)(推)(进)(美)(国)(利)(益)(。缺)(乏)(对)(该)(问)(题)(的)(讨)(论)(可)(能)(会)(诱)(使)(某)(些)(人)(相)(信)(“把)(年)(青)(人)(送)(上)(战)(场)(”将)(永)(远)(不)(会)(再)(次)(发)(生)(。然)(而)(,美)(国)(的)(最)(后)(一)(场)(战)(争)(还)(没)(有)(出)(现)(;当)(军)(事)(冲)(突)(再)(次)(爆)(发)(——在)(我)(们)(最)(不)(愿)(意)(看)(到)(的)(时)(间)(和)(地)(点)(——美)(国)(将)(需)(要)(对)(是)(否)(加)(入)(战)(争)(以)(及)(如)(何)(进)(行)(战)(争)(做)(出)(选)(择)(。在)(其)(对)(于)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(的)(经)(典)(描)(述)(中)(,TR菲)(润)(巴)(赫)((T.R.Fehrenbach)强)(调)(美)(国)(对)(此)(次)(发)(生)(于)(上)(世)(纪)(中)(期)(冲)(突)(的)(准)(备)(极)(不)(充)(分)(。正)(如)(其)(所)(指)(出)(的)(,任)(何)(军)(事)(力)(量)(如)(果)(对)(于)(战)(争)(胜)(利)(需)(要)(的)(方)(式)(准)(备)(不)(足)(,其)(必)(将)(被)(更)(加)(强)(大)(、坚)(韧)(和)(诡)(诈)(的)(敌)(人)(所)(击)(败)(。对)(于)(菲)(润)(巴)(赫)(来)(说)(,战)(争)(的)(爆)(发)(是)(朝)(鲜)(战)(争)(带)(来)(的)(教)(训)(。如)(果)(确)(实)(如)(此)(,美)(国)(对)(于)(强)(行)(进)(入)(作)(战)(的)(教)(训)(是)(其)(必)(将)(再)(次)(爆)(发)(。)!

作者:【龙虎和代理】


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