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中国近代宪政最后的希望

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月22日 11:44:49
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洛阳开办公用品发票██【电\微 15813★310971 李先生】【Q; 25880★8054】 ██▓信誉100%,专业100%,选择我们长期合作共赢!公司经百度推广!中国近代宪政最后的希望

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(  一)(百)(年)(前)(的)(3月)(20日)(晚)(,在)(上)(海)(火)(车)(站)(,一)(颗)(子)(弹)(夺)(走)(了)(一)(位)(青)(年)(政)(治)(家)(的)(生)(命)(,死)(者)(宋)(教)(仁)(,年)(仅)(32岁)(。  这)(不)(是)(一)(次)(普)(通)(的)(谋)(杀)(,它)(直)(接)(葬)(送)(了)(中)(国)(宪)(政)(的)(第)(三)(次)(机)(会)(。当)(时)(中)(国)(正)(是)(一)(个)(从)(专)(制)(转)(型)(的)(国)(家)(,宪)(政)(只)(有)(在)(专)(制)(解)(体)(之)(时)(才)(有)(一)(瞬)(间)(的)(机)(会)(。如)(果)(整)(个)(民)(族)(没)(有)(做)(好)(心)(理)(准)(备)(,那)(么)(这)(种)(难)(得)(的)(机)(会)(必)(然)(稍)(纵)(即)(逝)(。中)(国)(一)(连)(失)(去)(三)(次)(机)(会)(之)(后)(,宪)(政)(前)(景)(也)(就)(愈)(加)(显)(得)(渺)(茫)(了)(。遇)(刺)(后)(的)(宋)(教)(仁)(  中)(国)(宪)(政)(的)(第)(一)(次)(机)(会)(是)(在)(1898年)(戊)(戌)(变)(法)(。起)(因)(是)(1894年)(甲)(午)(海)(战)(,清)(廷)(吃)(了)(败)(仗)(,签)(了)(《马)(关)(条)(约)(》,不)(好)(向)(国)(人)(交)(待)(。朝)(野)(上)(下)(都)(渴)(望)(变)(法)(,皇)(上)(也)(是)(这)(么)(想)(,机)(会)(实)(在)(难)(得)(。可)(惜)(一)(旦)(触)(动)(满)(清)(既)(得)(利)(益)(,皇)(帝)(也)(不)(管)(用)(,更)(何)(况)(他)(是)(被)(老)(佛)(爷)(带)(大)(的)(、吓)(大)(的)(,有)(点)(像)(现)(在)(的)(秘)(书)(当)(政)(,底)(气)(不)(足)(,成)(不)(了)(大)(事)(。及)(至)(维)(新)(派)(冒)(险)(笼)(络)(手)(握)(重)(兵)(的)(袁)(世)(凯)(,已)(是)(大)(势)(已)(去)(的)(孤)(注)(一)(掷)(,自)(然)(是)(凶)(多)(吉)(少)(。不)(过)(至)(少)(统)(治)(层)(内)(部)(一)(度)(发)(生)(分)(裂)(,如)(果)(满)(清)(统)(治)(者)(高)(瞻)(远)(瞩)(、审)(时)(度)(势)(、好)(自)(为)(之)(,不)(失)(为)(步)(英)(国)(君)(主)(立)(宪)(后)(尘)(的)(一)(次)(机)(会)(。但)(是)(如)(此)(高)(估)(清)(朝)(统)(治)(者)(,的)(确)(太)(不)(现)(实)(。维)(新)(失)(败)(后)(,统)(治)(层)(愈)(加)(警)(惕)(保)(守)(。直)(到)(后)(来)(被)(迫)(“仿)(行)(宪)(政)(”,1908年)(颁)(布)(《钦)(定)(宪)(法)(大)(纲)(》,也)(是)(一)(股)(脑)(儿)(皇)(权)(至)(上)(,看)(不)(到)(一)(丁)(点)(宪)(政)(的)(影)(子)(。  第)(二)(次)(机)(会)(是)(1911年)(武)(昌)(起)(义)(,吓)(到)(了)(清)(廷)(。到)(了)(那)(个)(时)(候)(,老)(佛)(爷)(和)(光)(绪)(都)(已)(归)(天)(,剩)(下)(六)(岁)(溥)(仪)(孤)(儿)(寡)(母)(,朝)(中)(没)(人)(能)(镇)(得)(住)(,只)(得)(服)(软)(,颁)(布)(了)(《十)(九)(信)(条)(》。按)(说)(,这)(就)(是)(中)(国)(的)(“虚)(君)(制)(”了)(;开)(天)(辟)(地)(第)(一)(回)(,多)(么)(好)(的)(机)(会)(。可)(是)(革)(命)(党)(不)(干)(,宁)(愿)(让)(袁)(世)(凯)(占)(便)(宜)(,也)(要)(废)(了)(皇)(帝)(。当)(然)(,满)(清)(固)(步)(自)(封)(,自)(作)(自)(受)(,但)(是)(这)(样)(就)(把)(这)(好)(端)(端)(的)(第)(二)(次)(宪)(政)(机)(会)(搅)(黄)(了)(。  不)(过)(,还)(没)(有)(彻)(底)(令)(人)(绝)(望)(,因)(为)(所)(谓)(的)(“辛)(亥)(革)(命)(”实)(际)(上)(只)(是)(一)(次)(地)(方)(兵)(变)(,革)(命)(党)(不)(费)(吹)(灰)(之)(力)(,就)(得)(了)(胜)(利)(果)(实)(,可)(以)(说)(是)(一)(场)(“不)(流)(血)(的)(革)(命)(”。虽)(说)(以)(往)(几)(次)(暴)(动)(有)(流)(血)(牺)(牲)(,毕)(竟)(规)(模)(不)(大)(,结)(怨)(不)(深)(,确)(实)(属)(于)(相)(当)(不)(彻)(底)(的)(“小)(资)(产)(阶)(级)(革)(命)(”,不)(需)(要)(搞)(大)(规)(模)(的)(阶)(级)(斗)(争)(,也)(不)(需)(要)(考)(虑)(几)(千)(万)(烈)(士)(的)(待)(遇)(问)(题)(,因)(而)(还)(是)(有)(指)(望)(“共)(和)(”的)(。这)(就)(是)(中)(国)(宪)(政)(的)(第)(三)(次)(机)(会)(。如)(果)(满)(清)(遗)(老)(袁)(世)(凯)(能)(够)(和)(国)(民)(党)(新)(贵)(们)(和)(睦)(相)(处)(,那)(么)(辛)(亥)(革)(命)(堪)(称)(中)(国)(的)(“光)(荣)(革)(命)(”。然)(而)(,国)(民)(党)(、袁)(世)(凯)(两)(“虎)(”互)(不)(相)(让)(,两)(败)(俱)(伤)(,宪)(政)(再)(次)(成)(为)(泡)(影)(。  在)(这)(个)(当)(口)(,百)(年)(前)(的)(被)(害)(者)(宋)(教)(仁)(成)(为)(决)(定)(宪)(政)(成)(败)(的)(关)(键)(人)(物)(。说)(起)(宋)(教)(仁)(这)(个)(名)(字)(,总)(给)(人)(一)(种)(“教)(父)(”的)(感)(觉)(。虽)(然)(只)(有)(三)(十)(出)(头)(,他)(的)(确)(就)(是)(国)(民)(党)(的)(“教)(父)(”。民)(国)(成)(立)(后)(,是)(他)(将)(同)(盟)(会)(与)(其)(他)(小)(党)(合)(并)(,成)(立)(“国)(民)(党)(”并)(宣)(扬)(公)(开)(合)(法)(的)(多)(党)(竞)(争)(,通)(过)(选)(票)(赢)(得)(政)(权)(,而)(孙)(中)(山)(则)(仍)(然)(随)(时)(准)(备)(“继)(续)(革)(命)(”。孙)(中)(山)(和)(宋)(教)(仁)(之)(争)(不)(只)(是)(关)(于)(总)(统)(制)(、内)(阁)(制)(的)(模)(式)(之)(争)(,而)(是)(关)(于)(宪)(政)(民)(主)(和)(暴)(力)(革)(命)(的)(基)(本)(路)(线)(之)(争)(。孙)(中)(山)(也)(主)(张)(宪)(政)(,但)(是)(他)(的)(宪)(政)(首)(先)(是)(建)(立)(在)(暴)(力)(革)(命)(扫)(除)(一)(切)(军)(阀)(势)(力)(的)(“军)(政)(”基)(础)(上)(,然)(后)(还)(要)(经)(过)(一)(党)(独)(裁)(下)(的)(“训)(政)(”,而)(宋)(教)(仁)(的)(可)(贵)(之)(处)(在)(于)(他)(愿)(意)(和)(袁)(世)(凯)(等)(旧)(势)(力)(妥)(协)(合)(作)(,走)(“体)(制)(内)(”的)(议)(会)(民)(主)(道)(路)(。  事)(实)(证)(明)(,宋)(教)(仁)(路)(线)(在)(中)(国)(是)(可)(以)(成)(功)(的)(。在)(1913年)(的)(国)(会)(大)(选)(中)(,他)(领)(导)(国)(民)(党)(一)(举)(成)(为)(国)(会)(第)(一)(大)(党)(,大)(有)(建)(立)(内)(阁)(、问)(鼎)(总)(理)(之)(势)(。假)(如)(以)(此)(渐)(进)(理)(性)(的)(道)(路)(发)(展)(下)(去)(,中)(国)(未)(尝)(不)(能)(成)(为)(世)(界)(上)(第)(一)(个)(成)(功)(实)(施)(二)(元)(首)(脑)(的)(宪)(政)(国)(家)(。  可)(惜)(,罪)(恶)(的)(子)(弹)(打)(破)(了)(中)(国)(的)(宪)(政)(梦)(。凶)(手)(究)(竟)(是)(谁)(已)(不)(重)(要)(,刺)(宋)(案)(的)(元)(凶)(嫌)(疑)(不)(仅)(有)(袁)(世)(凯)(,而)(且)(也)(有)(国)(民)(党)(内)(的)(激)(进)(革)(命)(派)(。在)(一)(个)(政)(治)(游)(戏)(规)(则)(没)(有)(建)(立)(起)(来)(的)(国)(家)(,宋)(教)(仁)(之)(死)(或)(许)(只)(是)(一)(个)(时)(间)(问)(题)(,但)(是)(他)(的)(死)(宣)(告)(了)(国)(民)(党)(和)(袁)(世)(凯)(的)(决)(裂)(和)(第)(三)(次)(宪)(政)(机)(会)(的)(破)(灭)(。  虽)(然)(宋)(教)(仁)(临)(终)(前)(致)(袁)(世)(凯)(的)(遗)(言)(中)(表)(达)(了)(和)(平)(合)(作)(的)(殷)(切)(期)(望)(,但)(是)(已)(无)(力)(回)(天)(。孙)(中)(山)(组)(织)(“二)(次)(革)(命)(”讨)(袁)(,失)(败)(后)(组)(建)(“中)(华)(革)(命)(党)(”。十)(年)(后)(,在)(苏)(维)(埃)(老)(大)(哥)(的)(调)(教)(下)(,国)(民)(党)(终)(于)(从)(一)(群)(多)(党)(联)(盟)(的)(乌)(合)(之)(众)(转)(变)(成)(一)(个)(组)(织)(纪)(律)(严)(密)(、绝)(对)(服)(从)(总)(理)(的)(真)(正)(意)(义)(的)(革)(命)(党)(。及)(至)(北)(伐)(胜)(利)(,国)(民)(党)(才)(取)(得)(相)(对)(稳)(固)(的)(绝)(对)(统)(治)(地)(位)(:同)(志)(努)(力)(了)(,革)(命)(成)(功)(了)(,但)(是)(这)(表)(明)(宪)(政)(的)(机)(会)(却)(不)(再)(来)(了)(。)!

作者:【龙虎和代理】


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