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来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月22日 12:32:10
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(张)(五)(常)(通)(过)(大)(量)(的)(专)(栏)(文)(字)(,把)(经)(济)(学)(知)(识)(用)(于)(分)(析)(他)(所)(接)(触)(到)(的)(现)(实)(世)(界)(。  撰)(稿)(/江)(小)(鱼)(  1978年)(,张)(五)(常)(花)(费)(了)(3个)(月)(时)(间)(,为)(英)(国)(经)(济)(事)(务)(社)(撰)(写)(了)(一)(篇)(关)(于)(产)(权)(和)(交)(易)(费)(用)(的)(文)(章)(《TheMythofSocialCost》。那)(时)(的)(他)(,从)(1967年)(在)(西)(方)(经)(济)(学)(界)(一)(举)(成)(名)(的)(博)(士)(论)(文)(《佃)(农)(理)(论)(》,到)(随)(后)(几)(年)(发)(表)(的)(几)(篇)(重)(要)(学)(术)(文)(章)(《合)(约)(的)(结)(构)(》、《蜜)(蜂)(的)(神)(话)(》、《价)(格)(管)(制)(理)(论)(》、《产)(权)(与)(发)(明)(》,已)(经)(逐)(渐)(奠)(定)(了)(在)(西)(方)(经)(济)(学)(界)(的)(学)(术)(地)(位)(。  他)(为)(这)(家)(学)(社)(写)(就)(的)(另)(外)(一)(篇)(文)(章)(更)(广)(为)(世)(人)(所)(知)(,它)(是)(标)(志)(着)(张)(五)(常)(开)(始)(持)(续)(近)(30年)(的)(对)(中)(国)(经)(济)(改)(革)(的)(跟)(踪)(研)(究)(的)(代)(表)(作)(——1980年)(开)(始)(研)(写)(、1982年)(出)(版)(成)(书)(的)(《WillChinaGoCapitalist?》。正)(是)(在)(这)(篇)(文)(章)(中)(,张)(五)(常)(推)(论)(,中)(国)(将)(会)(采)(纳)(一)(种)(近)(似)(私)(有)(产)(权)(的)(产)(权)(结)(构)(。  那)(时)(候)(的)(张)(五)(常)(,是)(华)(盛)(顿)(大)(学)(的)(经)(济)(学)(教)(授)(;那)(时)(候)(的)(中)(国)(,刚)(经)(历)(过)(“文)(革)(”的)(劫)(难)(。虽)(然)(1978年)(年)(末)(的)(十)(一)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(做)(出)(了)(改)(革)(开)(放)(的)(决)(策)(,但)(实)(际)(上)(,一)(切)(都)(还)(处)(于)(摸)(索)(阶)(段)(,一)(般)(人)(的)(所)(见)(所)(闻)(,甚)(至)(在)(海)(外)(经)(济)(学)(家)(们)(的)(眼)(里)(,都)(无)(法)(看)(到)(更)(多)(乐)(观)(的)(信)(息)(。1979年)(张)(五)(常)(曾)(经)(有)(过)(一)(次)(国)(内)(之)(行)(,到)(广)(州)(佛)(山)(等)(地)(探)(访)(,看)(到)(的)(景)(象)(也)(使)(他)(唏)(嘘)(不)(已)(:两)(个)(女)(工)(的)(工)(作)(就)(是)(在)(几)(十)(平)(方)(米)(的)(地)(上)(扫)(来)(扫)(去)(;修)(补)(墙)(上)(一)(个)(小)(洞)(需)(要)(3个)(人)(;早)(餐)(时)(间)(有)(1小)(时)(,但)(半)(小)(时)(后)(已)(经)(无)(人)(理)(睬)(,服)(务)(员)(聚)(在)(一)(旁)(闲)(聊)(;大)(学)(里)(头)(的)(师)(生)(们)(对)(他)(带)(过)(去)(的)(一)(个)(计)(算)(器)(大)(感)(惊)(奇)(……  然)(而)(张)(五)(常)(却)(从)(一)(片)(残)(败)(与)(灰)(暗)(中)(,同)(时)(看)(到)(了)(这)(样)(的)(信)(息)(:人)(们)(私)(下)(有)(市)(场)(,二)(价)(的)(商)(品)(容)(易)(买)(到)(,他)(们)(忙)(于)(交)(换)(货)(品)(和)(门)(路)(的)(信)(息)(;已)(经)(有)(《原)(富)(》《通)(论)(》的)(中)(译)(本)(,有)(人)(译)(出)(了)(萨)(缪)(尔)(森)(的)(《经)(济)(学)(》,弗)(里)(德)(曼)(的)(《资)(本)(主)(义)(与)(自)(由)(》也)(已)(翻)(成)(了)(中)(文)(。由)(此)(,张)(五)(常)(断)(定)(,“钟)(摆)(已)(有)(力)(地)(往)(另)(一)(个)(方)(向)(摆)(动)(”,“假)(以)(时)(日)(,则)(必)(定)(带)(来)(改)(革)(体)(制)(的)(要)(求)(”。  而)(当)(时)(这)(些)(推)(论)(,张)(五)(常)(周)(围)(的)(师)(友)(们)(绝)(大)(多)(数)(都)(认)(为)(他)(过)(于)(乐)(观)(了)(,包)(括)(刚)(去)(过)(中)(国)(访)(问)(的)(弗)(里)(德)(曼)(,包)(括)(加)(里)(贝)(克)(,而)(舒)(尔)(兹)((T.W.Schultz,1979年)(诺)(奖)(得)(主)()则)(写)(信)(给)(他)(,直)(言)(经)(济)(学)(不)(可)(以)(作)(这)(样)(的)(推)(断)(。  张)(五)(常)(虽)(然)(出)(生)(在)(香)(港)(,并)(且)(在)(抗)(日)(战)(争)(时)(期)(曾)(经)(避)(难)(于)(内)(地)(,但)(是)(负)(笈)(海)(外)(之)(后)(,有)(关)(中)(国)(的)(信)(息)(,多)(从)(香)(港)(和)(内)(地)(的)(亲)(朋)(口)(中)(得)(知)(。特)(别)(是)(香)(港)(,无)(疑)(是)(观)(察)(祖)(国)(内)(地)(的)(极)(佳)(场)(所)(。而)(1982年)(是)(一)(个)(重)(要)(转)(折)(点)(,这)(一)(年)(张)(五)(常)(听)(从)(科)(斯)(等)(人)(的)(建)(议)(,从)(华)(盛)(顿)(大)(学)(回)(到)(香)(港)(,任)(职)(香)(港)(大)(学)(金)(融)(学)(院)(。有)(人)(为)(他)(的)(离)(开)(而)(惋)(惜)(,张)(五)(常)(华)(大)(同)(事)(诺)(思)(认)(为)(他)(是)(唯)(一)(能)(全)(面)(革)(新)(经)(济)(学)(理)(论)(的)(人)(。张)(五)(常)(从)(23岁)(开)(始)(进)(入)(本)(科)(学)(习)(,到)(取)(得)(经)(济)(学)(正)(教)(授)(的)(职)(位)(,只)(用)(区)(区)(9年)(时)(间)(。而)(一)(般)(来)(说)(,如)(果)(能)(够)(十)(分)(漂)(亮)(地)(取)(得)(博)(士)(学)(位)(,也)(需)(要)(大)(致)(12年)(才)(能)(够)(当)(上)(正)(教)(授)(。就)(凭)(这)(一)(点)(,张)(五)(常)(学)(术)(天)(赋)(之)(佳)(的)(确)(是)(罕)(有)(的)(。  从)(那)(时)(候)(开)(始)(,华)(文)(世)(界)(就)(多)(了)(许)(多)(神)(采)(飞)(扬)(的)(亮)(色)(。张)(五)(常)(通)(过)(大)(量)(的)(专)(栏)(文)(字)(,把)(经)(济)(学)(知)(识)(用)(于)(分)(析)(他)(所)(接)(触)(到)(的)(现)(实)(世)(界)(,当)(然)(,最)(重)(要)(的)(是)(中)(国)(改)(革)(进)(程)(的)(每)(一)(步)(了)(。而)(大)(多)(数)(中)(国)(学)(子)(,也)(通)(过)(张)(五)(常)(的)(这)(些)(中)(文)(专)(栏)(和)(书)(刊)(,接)(触)(和)(理)(解)(经)(济)(学)(知)(识)(,得)(知)(了)(经)(济)(学)(界)(许)(多)(异)(彩)(斑)(斓)(的)(故)(事)(。  中)(国)(的)(进)(一)(步)(改)(革)(开)(放)(,使)(张)(五)(常)(也)(有)(了)(深)(入)(观)(察)(和)(研)(究)(的)(机)(会)(,掌)(握)(了)(许)(多)(第)(一)(手)(资)(料)(。而)(中)(国)(的)(改)(革)(进)(程)(实)(在)(让)(人)(眼)(花)(缭)(乱)(,目)(不)(暇)(接)(。“再)(也)(找)(不)(到)(比)(现)(在)(的)(中)(国)(更)(活)(力)(四)(射)(、生)(机)(盎)(然)(的)(经)(济)(学)(实)(验)(室)(了)(。”  成)(名)(于)(佃)(农)(理)(论)(的)(张)(五)(常)(,数)(十)(年)(后)(的)(今)(天)(发)(现)(峰)(回)(路)(转)(,他)(所)(跟)(踪)(的)(中)(国)(改)(革)(到)(了)(近)(十)(多)(年)(,又)(回)(到)(了)(分)(成)(合)(约)(上)(。用)(他)(的)(原)(话)(,是)(“这)(个)(层)(层)(承)(包)(的)(发)(展)(,1994年)(采)(用)(增)(值)(税)(后)(,发)(展)(为)(我)(1967年)(以)(论)(文)(分)(析)(的)(佃)(农)(分)(成)(的)(合)(约)(安)(排)(。以)(县)(为)(经)(济)(决)(策)(重)(点)(,这)(安)(排)(促)(成)(的)(地)(区)(之)(间)(的)(产)(出)(激)(烈)(竞)(争)(,史)(无)(前)(例)(。”而)(正)(是)(源)(于)(此)(,张)(五)(常)(不)(遗)(余)(力)(地)(在)(多)(个)(场)(合)(大)(声)(赞)(扬)(,包)(括)(70岁)(生)(日)(宴)(会)(,包)(括)(不)(久)(前)(在)(深)(圳)(的)(一)(个)(经)(济)(论)(坛)(上)(,认)(为)(“撇)(开)(沙)(石)(”,从)(经)(济)(效)(率)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,这)(制)(度)(是)(人)(类)(历)(史)(最)(杰)(出)(的)(。  经)(济)(学)(上)(的)(解)(释)(,要)(源)(自)(科)(斯)(定)(理)(。科)(斯)(定)(理)(指)(出)(,有)(了)(产)(权)(上)(的)(界)(定)(,再)(允)(许)(自)(由)(转)(让)(,资)(源)(会)(达)(致)(效)(率)(最)(优)(。用)(于)(土)(地)(制)(度)(上)(,就)(是)(说)(先)(有)(土)(地)(产)(权)(的)(界)(定)(,再)(通)(过)(转)(让)(合)(约)(来)(使)(用)(土)(地)(。然)(而)(,张)(五)(常)(观)(察)(到)(,中)(国)(所)(走)(的)(是)(另)(外)(一)(条)(路)(:土)(地)(并)(非)(先)(进)(行)(产)(权)(界)(定)(,再)(进)(行)(市)(场)(合)(约)(的)(运)(作)(,而)(是)(土)(地)(的)(产)(权)(就)(是)(通)(过)(市)(场)(的)(分)(成)(合)(约)(来)(界)(定)(的)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(,市)(场)(合)(约)(就)(是)(产)(权)(界)(定)(的)(合)(约)(。  一)(百)(八)(十)(年)(前)(,龚)(自)(珍)(关)(于)(治)(理)(新)(疆)(的)(建)(议)(文)(章)(不)(被)(重)(视)(,悲)(慨)(之)(余)(,诗)(曰)(“文)(章)(合)(有)(老)(波)(澜)(,莫)(作)(鄱)(阳)(夹)(o看)(。五)(十)(年)(中)(言)(定)(验)(,苍)(茫)(六)(合)(此)(微)(官)(”,推)(定)(五)(十)(年)(定)(有)(应)(验)(;一)(百)(八)(十)(年)(之)(后)(,中)(国)(的)(经)(济)(改)(革)(已)(经)(进)(入)(了)(第)(三)(十)(个)(年)(头)(,改)(革)(成)(就)(有)(目)(共)(睹)(,而)(张)(五)(常)(关)(于)(中)(国)(改)(革)(的)(精)(确)(推)(断)(,无)(疑)(也)(将)(会)(同)(这)(一)(段)(历)(史)(本)(身)(一)(起)(被)(人)(们)(牢)(记)(。三)(十)(年)(中)(言)(定)(验)(,文)(章)(合)(有)(老)(波)(澜)(。五)(常)(当)(之)(无)(愧)(![上)(一)(页)(][1][2][3][4][5][下)(一)(页)(])!

作者:【龙虎和代理】


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