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广东省人民政府首页  >  要闻动态  >  广东要闻

劫难如何改变世界?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月21日 13:26:41
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哪里有青岛钢材发票-哪里可以开青岛钢材发票██【电\微 15813★310971 李先生】【Q; 25880★8054】 ██▓信誉100%,专业100%,选择我们长期合作共赢!公司经百度推广!劫难如何改变世界?

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(第)(1页)(:隔)(离)(措)(施)(有)(用)(吗)(?第)(2页)(:损)(失)(将)(十)(分)(惨)(重)(第)(3页)(:为)(什)(么)(总)(是)(亚)(洲)(?第)(4页)(:1918年)(:终)(结)(还)(是)(预)(言)(?  1918年)(:终)(结)(还)(是)(预)(言)(?  撰)(稿)(/赵)(艳)(燕)(  1918年)(不)(应)(被)(遗)(忘)(。作)(家)(阿)(尔)(弗)(雷)(德)(·罗)(斯)(比)((AlfredW.Crosby)在)(其)(《美)(国)(被)(遗)(忘)(的)(传)(染)(病)(:1918年)(流)(感)(》中)(写)(道)(:“在)(相)(同)(的)(历)(史)(时)(期)(内)(,没)(有)(一)(场)(疾)(病)(比)(这)(场)(浩)(劫)(夺)(走)(更)(多)(的)(生)(命)(。”  杰)(弗)(里)(·陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)((JefferyTaubenberger),美)(国)(军)(事)(病)(理)(研)(究)(所)(的)(病)(理)(学)(家)(,他)(最)(近)(揭)(开)(了)(1918年)(大)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(8个)(基)(因)(片)(段)(。这)(一)(研)(究)(表)(明)(,1918年)(导)(致)(5000万)(人)(死)(亡)(的)(流)(感)(,可)(能)(是)(直)(接)(由)(某)(种)(动)(物)(传)(播)(到)(人)(类)(身)(上)(的)(,而)(且)(,该)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(某)(些)(变)(异)(情)(况)(与)(肆)(虐)(亚)(洲)(的)(H5N1禽)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(变)(异)(状)(况)(十)(分)(相)(似)(。  这)(种)(比)(较)(结)(果)(意)(味)(着)(,H5N1可)(能)(已)(经)(具)(备)(了)(从)(禽)(鸟)(直)(接)(向)(人)(类)(传)(播)(的)(能)(力)(。  1918年)(的)(谜)(题)(  故)(事)(还)(要)(从)(1917年)(说)(起)(。  那)(年)(7月)(,美)(国)(宣)(布)(加)(入)(由)(英)(、法)(等)(国)(组)(成)(的)(协)(约)(国)(行)(列)(,向)(以)(德)(国)(、奥)(匈)(帝)(国)(为)(首)(的)(同)(盟)(国)(宣)(战)(。当)(美)(国)(军)(队)(在)(国)(内)(集)(结)(时)(,来)(自)(四)(面)(八)(方)(的)(士)(兵)(使)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(在)(军)(营)(中)(蔓)(延)(。当)(百)(万)(美)(国)(大)(军)(奔)(赴)(欧)(洲)(战)(场)(时)(,又)(把)(病)(毒)(带)(到)(了)(欧)(洲)(大)(陆)(。接)(着)(,流)(感)(又)(通)(过)(三)(个)(相)(距)(遥)(远)(的)(海)(军)(港)(口)(——非)(洲)(塞)(拉)(利)(昂)(的)(弗)(里)(敦)(、法)(国)(的)(布)(列)(斯)(特)(和)(美)(国)(的)(波)(士)(顿)(,迅)(速)(向)(四)(面)(八)(方)(扩)(散)(,六)(大)(洲)(无)(一)(幸)(免)(。  1918年)(,当)(第)(一)(次)(世)(界)(大)(战)(中)(残)(酷)(的)(堑)(壕)(战)(进)(入)(最)(后)(一)(年)(,流)(感)(开)(始)(夺)(走)(士)(兵)(的)(生)(命)(。在)(费)(城)(,无)(人)(认)(领)(的)(尸)(体)(散)(布)(数)(日)(,直)(到)(马)(拉)(的)(车)(穿)(过)(街)(道)(,呼)(唤)(活)(着)(的)(人)(带)(走)(他)(们)(死)(去)(的)(亲)(人)(。开)(普)(顿)(的)(人)(们)(倒)(空)(棺)(材)(,把)(还)(裹)(着)(毯)(子)(的)(尸)(体)(直)(接)(倒)(进)(大)(型)(坟)(墓)(。成)(千)(上)(万)(的)(美)(国)(士)(兵)(死)(在)(被)(称)(为)(“死)(亡)(之)(船)(”的)(运)(兵)(船)(上)(,没)(有)(任)(何)(方)(法)(阻)(止)(这)(幽)(灵)(般)(的)(“杀)(手)(”。  “如)(果)(这)(场)(传)(染)(病)(继)(续)(以)(成)(倍)(数)(增)(长)(,文)(明)(在)(数)(星)(期)(之)(内)(就)(会)(轻)(易)(瓦)(解)(。”美)(国)(公)(共)(卫)(生)(官)(员)(维)(克)(托)(·沃)(恩)((VictorVaughn)写)(道)(。这)(就)(是)(1918年)(“西)(班)(牙)(流)(感)(”的)(恐)(怖)(威)(力)(。它)(可)(能)(感)(染)(了)(全)(世)(界)(30%的)(人)(口)(、夺)(走)(将)(近)(5000万)(到)(1亿)(人)(的)(生)(命)(。在)(病)(毒)(流)(行)(的)(24个)(星)(期)(里)(,死)(去)(的)(人)(数)(甚)(至)(超)(过)(24年)(里)(死)(于)(艾)(滋)(病)(的)(人)(数)(。  人)(们)(习)(惯)(把)(这)(次)(浩)(劫)(称)(为)(“西)(班)(牙)(流)(感)(”,但)(致)(命)(流)(感)(并)(非)(发)(生)(在)(西)(班)(牙)(。显)(然)(是)(由)(于)(新)(闻)(媒)(体)(报)(道)(了)(1918年)(5月)(西)(班)(牙)(爆)(发)(流)(感)(,才)(出)(现)(此)(误)(称)(。事)(实)(上)(,这)(种)(疾)(病)(在)(此)(之)(前)(早)(已)(在)(欧)(洲)(前)(线)(的)(敌)(对)(双)(方)(中)(蔓)(延)(开)(来)(,而)(且)(在)(那)(年)(的)(春)(天)(和)(初)(夏)(,就)(已)(经)(击)(垮)(了)(整)(师)(的)(军)(队)(。那)(以)(后)(,流)(感)(似)(乎)(开)(始)(消)(退)(。但)(是)(到)(了)(夏)(末)(,“西)(班)(牙)(流)(感)(”竟)(卷)(土)(重)(来)(,而)(且)(这)(一)(次)(袭)(击)(的)(大)(多)(数)(对)(象)(竟)(是)(青)(壮)(年)(。  通)(常)(易)(感)(染)(流)(感)(的)(人)(群)(是)(小)(孩)(和)(老)(人)(,但)(那)(年)(20到)(40岁)(是)(最)(薄)(弱)(的)(人)(群)(。患)(者)(病)(倒)(时)(会)(发)(烧)(,伴)(有)(剧)(烈)(头)(痛)(和)(关)(节)(疼)(痛)(,有)(些)(人)(两)(三)(天)(就)(死)(了)(,死)(者)(脸)(色)(呈)(紫)(色)(,且)(基)(本)(上)(是)(窒)(息)(而)(死)(。打)(开)(死)(者)(胸)(腔)(的)(医)(生)(非)(常)(震)(惊)(:正)(常)(的)(肺)(叶)(很)(轻)(,并)(富)(有)(弹)(性)(,但)(他)(们)(的)(肺)(却)(重)(得)(像)(浸)(透)(水)(的)(海)(绵)(一)(样)(,里)(面)(满)(是)(带)(血)(的)(液)(体)(。  科)(学)(家)(认)(为)(,原)(因)(很)(可)(能)(是)(“西)(班)(牙)(流)(感)(”不)(同)(于)(其)(他)(较)(弱)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(,它)(能)(明)(显)(地)(引)(发)(人)(类)(免)(疫)(系)(统)(的)(过)(度)(反)(应)(。在)(免)(疫)(细)(胞)(撕)(碎)(被)(感)(染)(的)(组)(织)(试)(图)(消)(灭)(病)(毒)(后)((这)(个)(过)(程)(被)(称)(为)(细)(胞)(激)(素)(风)(暴)((cytokinestorm)),接)(着)(血)(液)(和)(其)(他)(流)(体)(物)(质)(就)(携)(带)(着)(这)(些)(免)(疫)(细)(胞)(、灌)(入)(肺)(部)(,引)(发)(急)(性)(呼)(吸)(窘)(迫)(综)(合)(征)((ARDS)。由)(于)(年)(轻)(人)(拥)(有)(较)(强)(的)(免)(疫)(系)(统)(,他)(们)(受)(到)(这)(种)(生)(理)(反)(应)(的)(几)(率)(就)(大)(大)(提)(高)(。  到)(底)(是)(什)(么)(让)(1918年)(流)(感)(这)(样)(致)(命)(?美)(国)(路)(易)(斯)(维)(尔)(大)(学)(的)(进)(化)(病)(毒)(学)(家)(保)(罗)(·埃)(瓦)(尔)(德)((PaulEwald)认)(为)(,拥)(挤)(不)(堪)(、糟)(糕)(的)(卫)(生)(条)(件)(为)(“掠)(食)(者)(”般)(的)(病)(毒)(提)(供)(了)(进)(化)(的)(土)(壤)(。当)(时)(数)(以)(万)(计)(的)(部)(队)(像)(沙)(丁)(鱼)(般)(挤)(在)(运)(兵)(船)(上)(、长)(椅)(上)(和)(军)(事)(医)(院)(中)(,病)(毒)(很)(容)(易)(繁)(殖)(,并)(且)(迅)(速)(传)(播)(。军)(人)(病)(死)(后)(堆)(积)(成)(山)(的)(尸)(体)(,还)(能)(继)(续)(传)(播)(这)(种)(致)(命)(病)(毒)(,即)(使)(在)(死)(者)(睡)(过)(的)(病)(床)(上)(,病)(毒)(也)(能)(像)(野)(火)(般)(蔓)(延)(。  “地)(球)(上)(的)(每)(个)(人)(都)(把)(这)(种)(病)(毒)(吸)(入)(体)(内)(,其)(中)(有)(一)(半)(人)(生)(病)(。”美)(国)(军)(事)(病)(理)(研)(究)(所)(病)(理)(学)(家)(杰)(弗)(里)(·陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)(说)(。他)(很)(想)(搞)(清)(楚)(,到)(底)(是)(什)(么)(使)(这)(种)(流)(感)(具)(有)(如)(此)(强)(大)(的)(杀)(伤)(力)(。1990年)(代)(中)(期)(,陶)(本)(伯)(格)(和)(他)(的)(同)(事)(认)(识)(到)(,如)(果)(患)(者)(感)(染)(上)(流)(感)(很)(快)(就)(死)(去)(,死)(时)(肺)(部)(仍)(然)(活)(跃)(着)(大)(量)(病)(毒)(,那)(么)(从)(这)(些)(死)(者)(身)(上)(采)(集)(的)(样)(本)(,可)(能)(仍)(保)(存)(着)(当)(年)(病)(毒)(的)(基)(因)(痕)(迹)(。  2005年)(10月)(6日)(,陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)(终)(于)(如)(愿)(以)(偿)(。  魔)(盒)(打)(开)(之)(路)(  “因)(为)(1918年)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(并)(非)(是)(人)(们)(所)(熟)(悉)(的)(病)(毒)(,所)(以)(没)(有)(对)(这)(种)(致)(命)(病)(原)(体)(进)(行)(分)(离)(提)(纯)(;结)(果)(人)(类)(没)(有)(办)(法)(去)(研)(究)(这)(种)(病)(毒)(。如)(今)(我)(们)(正)(在)(关)(注)(一)(场)(新)(的)(传)(染)(病)(,它)(很)(可)(能)(由)(蔓)(延)(在)(亚)(洲)(的)(H5N1型)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(引)(起)(。所)(以)(,去)(了)(解)(1918年)(到)(底)(发)(生)(了)(什)(么)(,有)(了)(新)(一)(轮)(的)(紧)(迫)(性)(。”杰)(弗)(里)(·陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)(向)(《新)(民)(周)(刊)(》解)(释)(研)(究)(1918年)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(良)(苦)(初)(衷)(。1918年)(的)(病)(毒)(学)(还)(处)(于)(萌)(芽)(期)(,直)(到)(1935年)(,人)(类)(才)(第)(一)(次)(分)(离)(提)(纯)(出)(病)(毒)(。  作)(为)(美)(国)(军)(事)(病)(理)(研)(究)(所)(的)(病)(理)(学)(家)(,陶)(本)(伯)(格)(领)(导)(的)(研)(究)(小)(组)(花)(了)(10年)(时)(间)(,完)(成)(了)(曾)(被)(众)(多)(专)(家)(认)(为)(的)(“不)(可)(能)(的)(任)(务)(”——成)(功)(破)(译)(了)(1918年)(流)(感)(病)(的)(8个)(基)(因)(片)(段)(。整)(个)(“追)(踪)(”过)(程)(就)(好)(比)(一)(场)(拼)(图)(游)(戏)(,充)(满)(了)(坎)(坷)(。  研)(究)(的)(最)(大)(困)(难)(是)(没)(有)(被)(感)(染)(人)(群)(的)(切)(片)(组)(织)(。但)(在)(美)(国)(军)(事)(病)(理)(研)(究)(所)(却)(有)(一)(个)(由)(林)(肯)(总)(统)(建)(立)(的)(尸)(体)(解)(剖)(储)(藏)(室)(。其)(中)(,储)(藏)(着)(两)(具)(死)(于)(1918年)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(士)(兵)(的)(尸)(体)(,一)(名)(士)(兵)(来)(自)(马)(萨)(诸)(塞)(州)(,另)(一)(名)(来)(自)(长)(岛)(。陶)(本)(伯)(格)(从)(尸)(体)(身)(上)(寻)(找)(切)(片)(组)(织)(,他)(把)(从)(肺)(部)(提)(取)(的)(切)(片)(组)(织)(浸)(泡)(在)(福)(尔)(马)(林)(中)(,然)(后)(用)(小)(块)(的)(蜡)(密)(封)(起)(来)(。虽)(然)(已)(有)(近)(80年)(没)(有)(人)(动)(过)(病)(毒)(,但)(病)(毒)(本)(身)(已)(有)(损)(坏)(或)(退)(化)(,必)(须)(要)(有)(新)(的)(受)(感)(染)(的)(人)(类)(样)(本)(。  一)(方)(有)(难)(,八)(方)(支)(援)(。陶)(本)(伯)(格)(最)(后)(从)(阿)(拉)(斯)(加)(永)(久)(冻)(土)(带)(的)(一)(具)(女)(尸)(中)(提)(取)(到)(了)(第)(三)(份)(样)(本)(。当)(时)(1918年)(流)(感)(袭)(击)(了)(她)(居)(住)(的)(小)(村)(庄)(,造)(成)(72名)(成)(年)(人)(死)(亡)(,仅)(5人)(幸)(存)(,死)(者)(被)(埋)(在)(永)(久)(冻)(土)(的)(大)(型)(坟)(墓)(中)(。一)(位)(名)(叫)(乔)(汉)(·哈)(尔)(丁)((JohanHultin)退)(休)(的)(病)(理)(学)(家)(帮)(助)(他)(获)(得)(了)(珍)(贵)(的)(肺)(组)(织)(切)(片)(。哈)(尔)(丁)(在)(报)(纸)(上)(读)(到)(陶)(本)(伯)(格)(的)(请)(求)(后)(,自)(费)(从)(旧)(金)(山)(的)(家)(里)(出)(发)(,来)(到)(这)(个)(妇)(女)(居)(住)(的)(村)(庄)(,千)(辛)(万)(苦)(得)(到)(村)(民)(允)(许)(后)(,挖)(开)(坟)(墓)(,从)(妇)(女)(的)(尸)(体)(中)(提)(取)(冰)(冻)(的)(肺)(组)(织)(,送)(往)(陶)(本)(伯)(格)(处)(。  陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)(和)(他)(的)(同)(事)(仔)(细)(提)(取)(、拼)(接)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(,陆)(续)(发)(布)(了)(他)(们)(和)(其)(他)(人)(过)(去)(对)(1918年)(流)(感)(的)(研)(究)(发)(现)(,但)(起)(先)(他)(们)(只)(发)(布)(了)(构)(成)(病)(毒)(的)(8个)(基)(因)(片)(段)(中)(的)(5个)(。构)(成)(病)(毒)(全)(长)(一)(半)(的)(最)(后)(的)(3个)(基)(因)(片)(段)(终)(于)(在)(10月)(6日)(英)(国)(《自)(然)(》杂)(志)(上)(发)(布)(。翌)(日)(,美)(国)(疾)(病)(控)(制)(中)(心)(科)(学)(家)(组)(成)(的)(研)(究)(小)(组)(在)(《科)(学)(》杂)(志)(上)(宣)(布)(,他)(们)(成)(功)(靠)(1918年)(的)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(序)(列)(复)(原)(了)(当)(年)(的)(致)(命)(“凶)(手)(”,而)(且)(还)(在)(老)(鼠)(身)(上)(进)(行)(测)(试)(。  研)(究)(显)(示)(,1918年)(的)(H1N1型)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(和)(其)(他)(人)(类)(感)(染)(的)(普)(通)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(运)(行)(方)(式)(完)(全)(不)(同)(。它)(能)(深)(度)(感)(染)(老)(鼠)(的)(肺)(部)(、感)(染)(肺)(细)(胞)(,就)(好)(比)(通)(常)(不)(被)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(感)(染)(的)(细)(胞)(里)(衬)(着)(一)(团)(“气)(囊)(”。6天)(后)(,老)(鼠)(全)(部)(死)(亡)(。这)(种)(病)(毒)(会)(杀)(死)(老)(鼠)(,但)(人)(类)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(不)(会)(。“1918年)(的)(病)(毒)(的)(形)(成)(和)(1957、1968年)(不)(同)(,这)(就)(是)(我)(们)(努)(力)(去)(破)(译)(1918年)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(密)(码)(的)(原)(因)(。”陶)(本)(伯)(格)(博)(士)(说)(。1918年)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(不)(像)(1957年)(和)(1968年)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(,后)(者)(是)(获)(得)(了)(几)(个)(禽)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(的)(人)(类)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(,但)(1918年)(的)(病)(毒)(可)(能)(完)(全)(是)(禽)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(转)(变)(而)(来)(。  复)(原)(后)(的)(1918年)(病)(毒)(的)(巨)(大)(杀)(伤)(力)(让)(科)(学)(家)(们)(开)(始)(担)(忧)(病)(毒)(泄)(漏)(或)(被)(恐)(怖)(分)(子)(滥)(用)(。陶)(本)(伯)(格)(对)(此)(并)(不)(担)(心)(,他)(向)(《新)(民)(周)(刊)(》坦)(言)(:“自)(1918年)(以)(来)(,1918年)(病)(毒)(‘后)(代)(’依)(然)(在)(蔓)(延)(,这)(些)(病)(毒)(种)(类)(是)(自)(20世)(纪)(70年)(代)(以)(来)(流)(感)(疫)(苗)(的)(一)(部)(分)(,现)(在)(人)(们)(已)(有)(了)(一)(定)(的)(防)(御)(H1N1型)(流)(感)(的)(能)(力)(。像)(1918年)(那)(样)(的)(病)(毒)(在)(今)(天)(造)(成)(流)(行)(病)(的)(几)(率)(很)(小)(。”  除)(此)(以)(外)(,科)(学)(家)(们)(还)(担)(心)(1918年)(的)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(蛋)(白)(质)(中)(的)(4400种)(氨)(基)(酸)(中)(只)(需)(有)(25到)(30种)(改)(变)(就)(能)(让)(病)(毒)(变)(成)(“杀)(手)(”。  陶)(本)(伯)(格)(和)(他)(的)(同)(事)(最)(后)(宣)(布)(的)(构)(成)(了)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(密)(码)(的)(3个)(基)(因)(片)(段)(,就)(是)(所)(谓)(的)(“聚)(化)(酶)(基)(因)(”,它)(能)(让)(病)(毒)(在)(寄)(主)(内)(不)(断)(复)(制)(,所)(以)(是)(造)(成)(传)(染)(病)(大)(流)(行)(的)(关)(键)(因)(素)(。如)(果)(去)(除)(这)(些)(致)(命)(基)(因)(,就)(能)(减)(低)(病)(毒)(的)(毒)(性)(。科)(学)(家)(们)(正)(在)(尝)(试)(重)(组)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(,密)(切)(关)(注)(哪)(些)(基)(因)(与)(毒)(性)(有)(直)(接)(关)(联)(。  同)(时)(,陶)(本)(伯)(格)(的)(研)(究)(小)(组)(已)(鉴)(别)(出)(一)(小)(部)(分)(氨)(基)(酸)(在)(聚)(化)(酶)(中)(的)(变)(化)(,他)(们)(还)(注)(意)(到)(某)(部)(分)(变)(化)(和)(现)(在)(自)(1997年)(在)(亚)(洲)(蔓)(延)(的)(H5N1高)(病)(原)(性)(禽)(流)(感)(的)(变)(化)(十)(分)(相)(似)(,这)(意)(味)(着)(H5N1型)(禽)(病)(毒)(可)(能)(已)(经)(具)(有)(直)(接)(传)(染)(给)(人)(类)(的)(能)(力)(。“我)(们)(正)(在)(试)(图)(模)(拟)(出)(禽)(流)(感)(适)(应)(人)(体)(的)(变)(异)(方)(式)(。”陶)(本)(伯)(格)(说)(。  虽)(然)(,陶)(本)(伯)(格)(领)(导)(的)(研)(究)(小)(组)(不)(断)(受)(到)(争)(议)(,但)(赞)(助)(这)(项)(研)(究)(的)(美)(国)(国)(立)(过)(敏)(和)(传)(染)(病)(研)(究)(所)((NationalInstituteofAllergyandInfectiousDiseases)的)(安)(东)(尼)(·弗)(西)((AnthonyS.Fauci)博)(士)(说)(:“这)(是)(我)(们)(必)(须)(严)(肃)(对)(待)(的)(事)(情)(。负)(责)(生)(物)(安)(全)(的)(美)(国)(国)(家)(科)(学)(咨)(询)(董)(事)(会)((NationalScienceAdvisoryBoard)已)(经)(一)(致)(投)(票)(通)(过)(,‘这)(项)(研)(究)(的)(利)(大)(于)(邪)(恶)(势)(力)(会)(滥)(用)(的)(弊)(’。”  陶)(本)(伯)(格)(也)(强)(调)(了)(此)(项)(研)(究)(的)(重)(要)(性)(:“去)(了)(解)(不)(断)(增)(强)(的)(动)(物)(感)(染)(的)(流)(感)(种)(类)(、它)(们)(怎)(样)(适)(应)(人)(体)(的)(过)(程)(以)(及)(由)(此)(造)(成)(的)(传)(染)(病)(大)(流)(行)(是)(十)(分)(重)(要)(的)(。”  Genbank:世)(界)(流)(感)(基)(因)(库)(  如)(果)(说)(复)(原)(1918年)(病)(毒)(是)(开)(启)(了)(潘)(多)(拉)(魔)(盒)(的)(一)(个)(小)(口)(,那)(么)(建)(立)(世)(界)(流)(感)(基)(因)(库)(,就)(等)(于)(把)(盒)(盖)(完)(全)(敞)(开)(,等)(待)(我)(们)(的)(是)(福)(,还)(是)(祸)(?  当)(陶)(本)(伯)(格)(的)(论)(文)(在)(10月)(6日)(《自)(然)(》杂)(志)(发)(表)(的)(当)(天)(,马)(里)(兰)(大)(学)(生)(物)(信)(息)(和)(计)(算)(生)(物)(学)(的)(主)(管)(史)(蒂)(芬)(·沙)(伯)((StevenSalzberg)领)(导)(的)(研)(究)(小)(组)(发)(布)(了)(建)(立)(世)(界)(流)(感)(基)(因)(库)(的)(文)(章)(,此)(项)(目)(由)(美)(国)(国)(立)(过)(敏)(和)(传)(染)(病)(研)(究)(所)(和)(世)(界)(各)(地)(大)(学)(或)(研)(究)(所)(的)(病)(毒)(学)(家)(参)(与)(合)(作)(,其)(中)(包)(括)(解)(密)(1918年)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(陶)(本)(伯)(格)(。  文)(章)(表)(明)(,流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(组)(在)(不)(断)(进)(化)(,而)(且)(提)(出)(了)(监)(测)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(新)(策)(略)(。“我)(们)(从)(美)(国)(、新)(西)(兰)(和)(澳)(大)(利)(亚)(的)(中)(心)(直)(接)(得)(到)(流)(感)(样)(本)(,这)(些)(样)(本)(直)(接)(送)(往)(马)(里)(兰)(。我)(们)(正)(努)(力)(让)(亚)(洲)(的)(医)(学)(中)(心)(提)(交)(他)(们)(的)(样)(本)(。样)(本)(包)(括)(人)(类)(患)(的)(流)(感)(和)(禽)(流)(感)(,但)(现)(在)(大)(部)(分)(的)(工)(作)(还)(是)(针)(对)(人)(类)(的)(。我)(们)(设)(计)(了)(一)(种)(新)(的)(更)(有)(效)(的)(方)(法)(对)(这)(些)(流)(感)(样)(本)(进)(行)(排)(序)(,大)(约)(收)(到)(样)(本)(后)(的)(5天)(内)(,就)(能)(完)(成)(对)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(组)(的)(排)(序)(。然)(后)(,我)(们)(把)(这)(些)(序)(列)(存)(储)(在)(公)(共)(数)(据)(库)(‘基)(因)(银)(行)(’(Genbank),此)(数)(据)(库)(和)(欧)(洲)(、日)(本)(的)(类)(似)(数)(据)(库)(共)(享)(资)(料)(。所)(有)(数)(据)(都)(能)(不)(受)(任)(何)(限)(制)(,供)(所)(有)(人)(使)(用)(。”沙)(伯)(向)(《新)(民)(周)(刊)(》解)(释)(他)(们)(的)(具)(体)(工)(作)(。  流)(感)(病)(毒)(每)(年)(变)(异)(,导)(致)(疫)(苗)(失)(效)(,需)(不)(断)(选)(择)(新)(的)(病)(毒)(株)(来)(制)(备)(疫)(苗)(。如)(果)(病)(毒)(发)(生)(抗)(原)(性)(转)(变)((antigenicshift),则)(人)(群)(对)(新)(病)(毒)(株)(缺)(乏)(免)(疫)(力)(,即)(导)(致)(全)(球)(大)(流)(行)(。发)(生)(在)(20世)(纪)(的)(3次)(流)(感)(大)(流)(行)((1918年)(、1957年)(和)(1968年)()死)(亡)(人)(数)(就)(达)(数)(千)(万)(。虽)(然)(1933年)(人)(类)(就)(分)(离)(出)(了)(第)(一)(株)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(,但)(对)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(是)(如)(何)(进)(化)(的)(还)(是)(不)(完)(全)(清)(楚)(。为)(更)(好)(地)(了)(解)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(进)(化)(,在)(过)(去)(5个)(流)(感)(季)(节)((1999-2004年)(),美)(国)(生)(物)(技)(术)(信)(息)(中)(心)((NCBI)的)(科)(学)(家)(们)(测)(定)(了)(209株)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(的)(全)(部)(基)(因)(组)(序)(列)((包)(括)(2821103个)(核)(苷)(酸)(),并)(对)(其)(基)(因)(组)(进)(行)(比)(较)(。  研)(究)(证)(明)(,一)(小)(群)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(株)(与)(另)(一)(株)(混)(合)(即)(出)(现)(新)(的)(优)(势)(病)(毒)(株)(。GenBank已)(储)(存)(了)(所)(有)(研)(究)(报)(告)(。“所)(有)(的)(流)(感)(样)(本)(的)(时)(间)(跨)(度)(是)(从)(近)(期)(到)(10年)(不)(等)(,有)(些)(可)(能)(更)(早)(。”沙)(伯)(介)(绍)(说)(。  当)(问)(起)(发)(布)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(序)(列)(是)(否)(会)(受)(到)(官)(方)(限)(制)(时)(,沙)(伯)(回)(答)(道)(:“我)(们)(现)(在)(还)(没)(有)(遇)(到)(任)(何)(生)(化)(防)(卫)(方)(面)(的)(障)(碍)(。说)(服)(流)(感)(研)(究)(者)(们)(共)(享)(他)(们)(的)(研)(究)(成)(果)(是)(我)(们)(最)(大)(的)(障)(碍)(。”  其)(实)(,储)(存)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(序)(列)(只)(是)(Genbank的)(一)(小)(部)(分)(任)(务)(。GenBank是)(由)(美)(国)(生)(物)(技)(术)(信)(息)(中)(心)((NCBI)于)(1982年)(建)(立)(并)(维)(护)(的)(,被)(称)(为)(世)(界)(上)(的)(权)(威)(序)(列)(数)(据)(库)(。它)(包)(含)(所)(有)(已)(知)(的)(核)(苷)(酸)(及)(蛋)(白)(质)(序)(列)(以)(及)(与)(之)(相)(关)(的)(生)(物)(学)(信)(息)(和)(参)(考)(文)(献)(,  自)(1994年)(以)(来)(,沙)(伯)(改)(进)(了)(寻)(找)(人)(类)(基)(因)(的)(程)(序)(。随)(后)(的)(几)(年)(里)(,NCBI的)(专)(家)(又)(研)(发)(出)(几)(个)(新)(的)(程)(序)(。其)(中)(的)(一)(个)(是)(与)(更)(为)(详)(尽)(的)(背)(景)(信)(息)(相)(整)(合)(,进)(行)(基)(因)(预)(测)(。GenBank发)(展)(极)(为)(迅)(速)(,仅)(1995年)(一)(年)(里)(增)(加)(的)(序)(列)(数)(据)(量)(,即)(超)(过)(以)(往)(14年)(的)(累)(加)(数)(目)(。1995年)(的)(版)(本)(含)(有)(492483个)(不)(同)(的)(序)(列)(,总)(长)(度)(超)(过)(353713490个)(碱)(基)(。其)(中)(54%是)(人)(?Homosapiens?的)(序)(列)(,此)(外)(还)(包)(括)(线)(虫)((C.elegans?、酵)(母)(?S.cerevisiae?、小)(家)(鼠)((Musmusculus?等)(15500种)(生)(物)(的)(DNA序)(列)(。  提)(起)(现)(在)(不)(断)(蔓)(延)(的)(禽)(流)(感)(,沙)(伯)(认)(为)(防)(御)(现)(在)(禽)(流)(感)(最)(重)(要)(的)(步)(骤)(是)(:一)(要)(监)(测)(禽)(流)(感)(的)(爆)(发)(,并)(且)(很)(快)(测)(试)(出)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(是)(否)(为)(H5N1型)(,同)(时)(关)(注)(它)(们)(是)(否)(还)(在)(变)(异)(;二)(要)(努)(力)(发)(展)(比)(我)(们)(现)(在)(更)(快)(的)(制)(造)(新)(疫)(苗)(的)(能)(力)(。  “我)(们)(对)(流)(感)(病)(毒)(基)(因)(组)(的)(排)(序)(工)(程)(就)(是)(第)(一)(个)(步)(骤)(的)(一)(部)(分)(,我)(们)(正)(在)(尽)(力)(做)(我)(们)(所)(能)(做)(的)(一)(切)(。要)(密)(切)(关)(注)(如)(今)(患)(流)(感)(的)(人)(群)(,这)(样)(如)(果)(病)(毒)(造)(成)(新)(的)(传)(染)(病)(,我)(们)(就)(会)(有)(所)(准)(备)(去)(回)(击)(。”沙)(伯)(说)(。上)(一)(页)([1][2][3][4])!

作者:【龙虎和代理】


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