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习近平:理国要道

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月22日 13:45:49
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温州开饭店发票██【电\微 15813★310971 李先生】【Q; 25880★8054】 ██▓信誉100%,专业100%,选择我们长期合作共赢!公司经百度推广!习近平:理国要道

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(  2014年)(1月)(7日)(,习)(近)(平)(主)(席)(在)(中)(央)(政)(法)(工)(作)(会)(议)(上)(,引)(用)(到)(了)(唐)(代)(史)(学)(家)(吴)(兢)(在)(政)(论)(史)(书)(《贞)(观)(政)(要)(》中)(的)(一)(句)(话)(:“理)(国)(要)(道)(,在)(于)(公)(平)(正)(直)(。”  (一)()公)(平)(  公)(平)(,这)(是)(人)(类)(社)(会)(于)(发)(展)(过)(程)(中)(,在)(始)(终)(努)(力)(追)(求)(的)(标)(准)(。然)(而)(,绝)(对)(的)(公)(平)(,在)(任)(何)(时)(代)(、任)(何)(制)(度)(里)(,都)(是)(永)(远)(不)(存)(在)(的)(。每)(个)(人)(从)(天)(生)(的)(客)(观)(条)(件)(上)(讲)(,因)(为)(个)(体)(状)(况)(不)(同)(、地)(域)(环)(境)(不)(同)(、机)(会)(际)(遇)(不)(同)(……就)(必)(然)(会)(面)(临)(不)(同)(的)(起)(点)(和)(不)(同)(的)(道)(路)(。生)(而)(存)(世)(,我)(们)(必)(须)(首)(先)(正)(视)(先)(天)(的)(不)(公)(平)(,而)(后)(才)(能)(理)(智)(去)(改)(变)(不)(公)(平)(。  正)(因)(为)(从)(客)(观)(层)(面)(,世)(界)(上)(并)(不)(存)(在)(绝)(对)(的)(公)(平)(,所)(以)(社)(会)(努)(力)(的)(方)(向)(、所)(以)(文)(明)(前)(进)(的)(趋)(势)(,才)(是)(努)(力)(地)(去)(从)(人)(为)(层)(面)(构)(筑)(相)(对)(的)(公)(平)(、追)(求)(后)(天)(营)(造)(的)(公)(平)(。  比)(如)(,社)(会)(规)(则)(倘)(若)(给)(每)(个)(人)(以)(同)(样)(的)(待)(遇)(,这)(就)(只)(是)(一)(种)(似)(是)(而)(非)(的)(“平)(等)(”,并)(不)(是)(真)(正)(意)(义)(上)(的)(“公)(平)(”  ;而)(相)(反)(,社)(会)(能)(够)(给)(弱)(势)(群)(体)(以)(更)(多)(的)(照)(顾)(、更)(多)(的)(政)(策)(倾)(斜)(,这)(种)(看)(似)(的)(条)(件)(“不)(平)(等)(”,才)(是)(达)(成)(了)(结)(果)(上)(的)(公)(平)(。这)(也)(就)(是)(一)(个)(文)(明)(社)(会)(提)(倡)(照)(顾)(“老)(弱)(病)(残)(幼)(”的)(道)(理)(。—那)(么)(还)(原)(生)(活)(来)(看)(,我)(们)(在)(公)(车)(上)(是)(否)(该)(给)(需)(要)(的)(人)(群)(让)(座)(?这)(不)(是)(需)(要)(口)(齿)(争)(论)(的)(是)(非)(话)(题)(,而)(是)(该)(去)(努)(力)(践)(行)(的)(公)(平)(准)(则)(。  如)(果)(社)(会)(不)(够)(公)(平)(,人)(们)(会)(怎)(样)(反)(应)(?唐)(代)(的)(韩)(愈)(就)(形)(象)(地)(说)(:“大)(凡)(物)(不)(得)(其)(平)(则)(鸣)(……人)(之)(于)(言)(也)(亦)(然)(,由)(不)(得)(已)(者)(而)(后)(言)(。其)(歌)(也)(有)(思)(,其)(哭)(也)(有)(怀)(,凡)(出)(口)(而)(为)(声)(者)(,其)(皆)(有)(弗)(平)(者)(乎)(!”韩)(愈)(论)(述)(道)(,如)(果)(物)(体)(没)(有)(处)(于)(平)(静)(的)(状)(态)(,就)(会)(发)(出)(声)(音)(,比)(如)(水)(面)(不)(平)(则)(波)(涛)(涌)(动)(;那)(么)(,人)(心)(也)(是)(同)(理)(,久)(处)(不)(平)(,则)(人)(言)(鼎)(沸)(,则)(物)(议)(沸)(腾)(。  人)(们)(或)(歌)(或)(哭)(,或)(言)(或)(声)(,都)(是)(因)(为)(心)(中)(不)(平)(,久)(久)(不)(得)(公)(平)(相)(待)(!  人)(们)(总)(是)(不)(公)(平)(,社)(会)(就)(会)(不)(太)(平)(。对)(此)(,孔)(子)(就)(严)(肃)(地)(教)(育)(弟)(子)(说)(:“丘)(也)(闻)(有)(国)(有)(家)(者)(,不)(患)(寡)(而)(患)(不)(均)(,不)(患)(贫)(而)(患)(不)(安)(。盖)(均)(无)(贫)(,和)(无)(寡)(,安)(无)(倾)(。”家)(国)(天)(下)(,物)(资)(匮)(乏)(并)(不)(算)(最)(可)(怕)(,最)(可)(怕)(的)(是)(分)(配)(方)(式)(不)(均)(等)(。如)(果)(物)(资)(均)(衡)(,人)(们)(互)(相)(就)(不)(会)(感)(觉)(贫)(乏)(;如)(果)(社)(会)(和)(谐)(,社)(稷)(之)(安)(就)(不)(怕)(人)(少)(力)(薄)(;如)(果)(国)(家)(安)(定)(,这)(个)(时)(代)(就)(不)(怕)(倾)(覆)(之)(灾)(。  因)(此)(在)(《大)(学)(》里)(提)(出)(的)(人)(生)(修)(为)(的)(进)(阶)(等)(级)(中)(,说)(“修)(身)(齐)(家)(治)(国)(平)(天)(下)(”—最)(高)(的)(目)(标)(“平)(天)(下)(”,既)(是)(要)(“平)(定)(天)(下)(”,也)(是)(要)(“天)(下)(太)(平)(”。而)(天)(下)(太)(平)(,就)(需)(要)(社)(会)(公)(平)(。  (二)()正)(直)(  一)(个)(人)(正)(直)(与)(否)(,体)(现)(为)(人)(格)(的)(把)(握)(能)(力)(;  一)(个)(社)(会)(正)(直)(与)(否)(,体)(现)(为)(国)(家)(的)(治)(理)(能)(力)(。  所)(谓)(上)(行)(下)(效)(,政)(令)(坚)(持)(正)(直)(的)(判)(断)(、正)(义)(的)(执)(行)(,百)(姓)(个)(人)(才)(更)(容)(易)(保)(持)(一)(份)(信)(奉)(正)(直)(的)(精)(神)(力)(量)(。所)(以)(《论)(语)(》当)(中)(就)(明)(确)(说)(明)(了)(这)(样)(的)(道)(理)(:  哀)(公)(问)(曰)(:“何)(为)(则)(民)(服)(?”孔)(子)(对)(曰)(:“举)(直)(错)(诸)(枉)(,则)(民)(服)(。举)(枉)(错)(诸)(直)(,则)(民)(不)(服)(。”  鲁)(哀)(公)(问)(,怎)(样)(做)(才)(能)(使)(百)(姓)(信)(服)(呢)(?孔)(子)(回)(答)(说)(,提)(拔)(正)(直)(的)(人)(,让)(他)(们)(统)(帅)(在)(邪)(佞)(的)(人)(之)(上)(,百)(姓)(就)(会)(心)(甘)(情)(愿)(地)(服)(从)(;如)(果)(把)(邪)(佞)(的)(人)(放)(置)(在)(正)(直)(的)(人)(地)(位)(之)(上)(,那)(么)(百)(姓)(就)(会)(不)(服)(。  这)(就)(是)(正)(直)(对)(于)(家)(国)(社)(会)(、对)(于)(人)(际)(交)(往)(的)(重)(要)(力)(量)(。孟)(子)(说)(“枉)(己)(者)(,未)(有)(能)(直)(人)(者)(”,自)(己)(不)(行)(正)(道)(,是)(不)(能)(使)(他)(人)(正)(直)(的)(;明)(代)(诗)(人)(王)(廷)(陈)(说)(“宁)(为)(直)(伐)(,不)(为)(曲)(全)(”,宁)(愿)(保)(持)(正)(直)(而)(遭)(玉)(碎)(,也)(不)(变)(节)(曲)(邪)(而)(求)(瓦)(全)(;民)(国)(时)(期)(的)(蔡)(锷)(将)(军)(也)(说)(,“以)(正)(胜)(邪)(,以)(直)(胜)(曲)(”。  《吕)(氏)(春)(秋)(》里)(就)(记)(载)(有)(一)(个)(人)(是)(如)(何)(体)(现)(他)(的)(正)(直)(行)(为)(:  晋)(平)(公)(问)(祁)(黄)(羊)(,谁)(适)(合)(做)(南)(阳)(县)(令)(?祁)(黄)(羊)(说)(,解)(狐)(适)(合)(这)(个)(职)(位)(。晋)(平)(公)(便)(非)(常)(奇)(怪)(地)(问)(他)(,解)(狐)(不)(正)(是)(你)(的)(杀)(父)(仇)(人)(吗)(?但)(祁)(黄)(羊)(冷)(静)(地)(回)(答)(说)(,您)(是)(在)(问)(我)(适)(合)(这)(个)(官)(位)(的)(是)(谁)(,而)(非)(在)(问)(我)(我)(的)(仇)(人)(是)(谁)(。  又)(一)(次)(,晋)(平)(公)(问)(祁)(黄)(羊)(,谁)(适)(合)(掌)(管)(国)(家)(军)(事)(呢)(?祁)(黄)(羊)(回)(答)(,祁)(午)(适)(合)(。晋)(平)(公)(于)(是)(追)(问)(,祁)(午)(不)(就)(是)(你)(的)(儿)(子)(吗)(?祁)(黄)(羊)(再)(一)(次)(理)(智)(地)(回)(答)(说)(,您)(问)(的)(是)(适)(合)(这)(个)(官)(位)(的)(是)(谁)(,不)(是)(在)(问)(我)(我)(的)(儿)(子)(是)(谁)(。  对)(于)(这)(两)(次)(诚)(心)(推)(荐)(,晋)(平)(公)(都)(采)(纳)(了)(祁)(黄)(羊)(的)(举)(荐)(;而)(这)(两)(人)(为)(官)(上)(任)(后)(,也)(都)(得)(到)(了)(举)(国)(上)(下)(的)(交)(口)(称)(赞)(。这)(说)(明)(,祁)(黄)(羊)(的)(确)(是)(在)(客)(观)(选)(拔)(人)(才)(。  对)(此)(,孔)(子)(就)(赞)(叹)(祁)(黄)(羊)(确)(实)(是)(大)(公)(无)(私)(、正)(直)(为)(人)(。孔)(子)(此)(时)(对)(祁)(黄)(羊)(说)(了)(一)(句)(评)(语)(,这)(句)(经)(典)(评)(语)(,成)(为)(了)(后)(世)(人)(们)(形)(容)(一)(个)(人)(心)(底)(坦)(荡)(、正)(直)(无)(私)(的)(行)(为)(标)(准)(,就)(叫)(做)(:“外)(举)(不)(避)(仇)(,内)(举)(不)(避)(子)(。”  只)(有)(去)(除)(私)(心)(、坚)(守)(正)(直)(,才)(能)(客)(观)(品)(评)(一)(个)(人)(的)(好)(坏)(得)(失)(,而)(不)(是)(主)(观)(衡)(量)(一)(个)(人)(的)(亲)(仇)(关)(系)(。  (三)()公)(正)(  百)(姓)(对)(于)(公)(平)(正)(直)(的)(渴)(求)(,往)(往)(反)(映)(在)(,把)(历)(史)(人)(物)(传)(奇)(化)(、把)(传)(奇)(故)(事)(神)(圣)(化)(。  比)(如)(,北)(宋)(名)(臣)(包)(拯)(,因)(为)(他)(为)(官)(清)(廉)(公)(正)(,所)(以)(逐)(渐)(演)(化)(为)(剧)(目)(里)(妇)(孺)(皆)(知)(的)(“包)(青)(天)(”,被)(树)(立)(为)(铁)(面)(无)(私)(、正)(直)(无)(畏)(的)(人)(物)(典)(范)(。即)(使)(包)(拯)(的)(最)(高)(官)(职)(,是)(在)(盖)(棺)(定)(论)(时)(被)(追)(赠)(为)(礼)(部)(尚)(书)(尚)(书)(、谥)(号)(孝)(肃)(,然)(而)(在)(广)(大)(人)(民)(的)(心)(中)(,他)(永)(远)(被)(定)(型)(为)(开)(封)(府)(尹)(的)(形)(象)(,永)(远)(都)(是)(百)(姓)(心)(中)(最)(需)(要)(的)(父)(母)(官)(的)(角)(色)(。—即)(使)(被)(授)(“龙)(图)(阁)(直)(学)(士)(”的)(包)(拯)(,更)(为)(文)(雅)(高)(贵)(的)(别)(称)(是)(“包)(龙)(图)(”,但)(是)(古)(往)(今)(来)(的)(民)(众)(对)(他)(最)(爱)(戴)(的)(称)(呼)(依)(然)(是)(“包)(青)(天)(”,是)(不)(以)(职)(位)(命)(名)(他)(、不)(以)(谥)(号)(官)(称)(他)(,而)(是)(以)(公)(平)(正)(直)(的)(品)(格)(,来)(世)(世)(代)(代)(地)(定)(性)(他)(。  而)(在)(戏)(曲)(故)(事)(里)(,有)(一)(个)(昆)(曲)(剧)(目)(叫)(《白)(罗)(衫)(》,所)(讲)(述)(的)(故)(事)(,是)(年)(轻)(有)(为)(的)(监)(察)(御)(史)(徐)(继)(祖)(,在)(办)(案)(时)(,发)(现)(一)(桩)(杀)(人)(夺)(子)(的)(惊)(天)(大)(案)(的)(主)(犯)(,竟)(然)(就)(是)(自)(己)(的)(养)(父)(徐)(能)(!徐)(能)(在)(十)(八)(年)(前)(迫)(害)(了)(徐)(继)(祖)(的)(亲)(生)(父)(母)(,而)(把)(刚)(刚)(出)(生)(的)(婴)(儿)(徐)(继)(祖)(收)(为)(养)(子)(,并)(抚)(养)(成)(人)(。徐)(继)(祖)(得)(知)(这)(个)(身)(世)(机)(密)(之)(后)(,经)(过)(内)(心)(挣)(扎)(,最)(终)(决)(定)(让)(真)(相)(大)(白)(,把)(罪)(犯)(也)(就)(是)(自)(己)(的)(养)(父)(徐)(能)(擒)(获)(伏)(法)(,与)(失)(散)(多)(年)(的)(家)(人)(团)(聚)(。  《白)(罗)(衫)(》的)(故)(事)(,是)(设)(置)(出)(了)(一)(种)(极)(度)(戏)(剧)(化)(的)(境)(地)(,来)(考)(验)(着)(人)(性)(关)(头)(的)(抉)(择)(,来)(完)(成)(着)(世)(间)(法)(理)(的)(艰)(难)(。虽)(然)(人)(们)(对)(情)(节)(设)(置)(存)(有)(争)(议)(,有)(些)(观)(众)(就)(认)(为)(徐)(能)(对)(养)(子)(有)(养)(育)(之)(恩)(、徐)(继)(祖)(也)(应)(该)(对)(养)(父)(有)(报)(恩)(之)(义)(。但)(是)(中)(国)(古)(人)(就)(是)(把)(这)(样)(的)(情)(理)(冲)(突)(,放)(置)(在)(一)(种)(极)(致)(的)(风)(口)(浪)(尖)(上)(来)(考)(量)(、来)(忖)(度)(。这)(出)(剧)(目)(特)(意)(彰)(显)(的)(,并)(非)(是)(感)(情)(要)(如)(何)(善)(后)(,而)(是)(正)(直)(该)(如)(何)(保)(留)(。  什)(么)(叫)(公)(平)(正)(直)(?就)(是)(有)(一)(千)(种)(可)(以)(“曲)(”的)(理)(由)(,但)(是)(坚)(决)(选)(择)(唯)(一)(性)(的)(属)(于)(“直)(”的)(正)(道)(。《荀)(子)(》里)(说)(:“是)(谓)(是)(,非)(谓)(非)(,曰)(直)(。”任)(何)(人)(做)(任)(何)(事)(,都)(可)(以)(为)(自)(己)(的)(人)(性)(屈)(从)(和)(心)(灵)(扭)(曲)(找)(出)(百)(般)(借)(口)(—借)(口)(永)(远)(是)(不)(缺)(的)(,导)(致)(了)(正)(直)(往)(往)(是)(缺)(位)(的)(。  我)(们)(社)(会)(大)(力)(弘)(扬)(的)(社)(会)(主)(义)(核)(心)(价)(值)(观)(,在)(社)(会)(层)(面)(的)(价)(值)(取)(向)(上)(,有)(一)(个)(词)(就)(是)(“公)(正)(”。公)(正)(,就)(是)(公)(平)(正)(直)(,就)(是)(能)(仰)(不)(愧)(于)(天)(、俯)(不)(愧)(于)(地)(,就)(是)(习)(大)(大)(引)(用)(《贞)(观)(政)(要)(》说)(的)(这)(一)(句)(:“理)(国)(要)(道)(,在)(于)(公)(平)(正)(直)(。”  作)(者)(介)(绍)(:  曹)(雅)(欣)(,中)(国)(文)(化)(网)(络)(传)(播)(研)(究)(会)(副)(秘)(书)(长)(,“子)(曰)(师)(说)(”微)(信)(号)(、“学)(习)(经)(典)(”微)(信)(号)(创)(始)(人)(。  青)(年)(文)(化)(学)(者)(。独)(立)(撰)(稿)(人)(、文)(化)(主)(持)(人)(、国)(艺)(演)(说)(者)(。  光)(明)(网)(“醉)(中)(国)(”专)(栏)(作)(者)(。代)(表)(作)(有)(《国)(学)(与)(社)(会)(主)(义)(核)(心)(价)(值)(观)(》等)(图)(书)(。其)(“国)(学)(与)(时)(政)(”系)(列)(文)(章)(,分)(别)(被)(全)(国)(上)(百)(家)(主)(流)(网)(站)(广)(为)(转)(载)(。  策)(划)(并)(撰)(写)(了)(“琴)(梦)(中)(国)(”系)(列)(作)(品)(,包)(括)(《琴)(梦)(红)(楼)(》《琴)(颂)(诗)(经)(》等)(。  “国)(艺)(演)(说)(”是)(曹)(雅)(欣)(首)(创)(的)(一)(种)(讲)(与)(演)(并)(重)(的)(、多)(种)(艺)(术)(形)(式)(结)(合)(的)(文)(化)(传)(播)(方)(式)(。在)(“琴)(梦)(红)(楼)(”、“琴)(颂)(诗)(经)(”琴)(歌)(艺)(术)(音)(乐)(会)(中)(,担)(任)(每)(场)(音)(乐)(会)(的)(文)(化)(主)(持)(。  始)(终)(致)(力)(于)(中)(国)(传)(统)(文)(化)(的)(当)(代)(传)(播)(,把)(国)(学)(、国)(艺)(做)(时)(代)(性)(解)(读)(。  书)(画)(作)(者)(介)(绍)(  冷)(万)(里)(,字)(远)(,号)(寥)(远)(,1956年)(生)(于)(北)(京)(,祖)(籍)(山)(东)(荣)(成)(。别)(署)(泥)(雅)(小)(居)(、听)(雨)(轩)(、古)(汉)(堂)(、翠)(山)(居)(等)(。毕)(业)(于)(北)(京)(首)(都)(师)(范)(大)(学)(书)(法)(艺)(术)(专)(业)(,现)(为)(中)(国)(书)(法)(家)(协)(会)(会)(员)(、中)(国)(生)(态)(书)(画)(院)(副)(院)(长)(、北)(京)(书)(法)(家)(协)(会)(理)(事)(兼)(展)(览)(工)(作)(委)(员)(会)(副)(主)(任)(、北)(京)(市)(西)(城)(区)(书)(法)(家)(协)(会)(常)(务)(副)(主)(席)(兼)(秘)(书)(长)(、北)(京)(市)(西)(城)(区)(文)(联)(副)(主)(席)(。)!

作者:【龙虎和代理】


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